neuro exam 2

  1. coelenterates (cnidaria)
    • radial symmetry, has a nerve net for nerve system, conduct impulses throughout entire body
    • synapses communicate bidirectionally, have simple receptors for light, balance, chemical detection, touch
  2. annelids
    has a paired ventral nerve crod and primitive brain, segements with ganglion in each, brain connected to first ventral ganglion, each segmented ganglion gets sensory info and local control of muscle
  3. arthropods
    • anterior fused to form more complex brain, brain connected to first ventral ganglion, double nerve chord extends from first gnaglion to segmented ganglia down the whole body
    • has two specialized ganglion
    • subesophgeal ganglion: controls mouth parts
    • stomatogastric ganglia: controls vicera
    • some activities regulated by central pattern generators
  4. molluscs
    • up to 6 ganglia
    • each associated with certain motor/sensory function, very large neurons ideal for experiments
  5. medulla
    • myelincephalon
    • for basic functions like breathing, heart rate, blood pressure
    • place where many cranial nerves enter and exit
  6. pons
    • metencephalon
    • motor control, reticular activating system
  7. cerebellum
    • metencephalon
    • "little brain"
    • for movement, balance, posture
  8. midbrain
    • mesencephalon
    • includes tectum, tegmentum, and red nucleus (motor centers)
    • for vision, audition, eye movement, body movement, arousal/attention
  9. hypothalamus
    • diencephalon
    • controls body temperature, feeding, drinking, pituitary (hormones), circadiam rhythms, emotions
  10. tectum
    • in mesencephalon
    • auditory and visual reflexes
  11. tegmentum
    • mesencephalon
    • involved in unconscious homeostatic and reflexive pathways
  12. thalamus
    • diencephalon
    • receives sensory info from lower areas and relays info to cerebral cortext (can transmit signals back down to lower parts)
    • integrates sensory and motor function
  13. olfactory bulbs
    • telecephalon?
    • sticks forward out of the brain
    • has areas where it connects to hypothalamus and cortext (reason why smell is strong sense feeling wise
    • for smell
  14. limbic system
    • telencephalon
    • includes amygdala, hippocampus, mammillary bodies and cingulate gyrus
    • control emotional response
  15. basal ganglia
    • telencephalon
    • include globus pallidus, caudate nucleus, subthalamic nucleus, putamen, and substantia nigra
    • important for coordinating movement
  16. corpus callosum
    connects left and right cerebral hemispheres together
  17. neocortex
    • part of cerebral cortex
    • for sensory perception, generation of motor commands, spatial reasoning, conscious thought, and language
  18. hippocampus
    • telencephalon
    • part of limbic system for learning and memory
  19. cortex
    • telencephalon
    • bumps are called gyrus and groves area called sulcus
    • functions to thought, voluntary movement, language, reasoning, perception, awareness
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neuro exam 2
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