1. On what two areas of study was psychology based?
  2. Science of mental processes and behavior
  3. What is a hypothesis?
    A testable prediction derived from the theory
  4. What is naturalistic observation?
    Observing and recording the behavior of animals in the wild and recording self-seating patterns in a multiracial school lunchroom constitute naturalistic observation
  5. What is a problem with the case study approach?
    They suffer from limitations
  6. What is a population and what is a sample?
    Population consists of the entire group of individuals that one wishes to study Sampling- population, random sample
  7. What is correlational research?
    Often when observing behavior one might notice that several behaviors tend to occur together
  8. What values can correlation coefficients take on?
    A statistical measure of the strength of the relationship between two variables
  9. What is a major advantage of experimental research?
    It has a backbone of psychology research
  10. What is a dependent variable?
    affected by the independent variable
  11. What is a placebo?
    placebo is a pill or procedure prescribed more for the psychological benefit to the patient than for any physiological effect
  12. What are the three major stages in most memory models?
    Sensory memory- Short-tem memory- Long-term memory-
  13. What is iconic memory?
    Visual memory that is held in sensory memory
  14. What is semantic memory?
    Remembers word meanings (a dog is an animal); concepts (heat rises); general facts (my dog is named Oliver)
  15. What is distributed practice?
    Spacing the repetitions of to-be-remembered information over time
  16. What is the serial position effect?
    How well items are recalled
  17. What is the method of loci? Know how it works.
    A mnemonic device in which you choose some pathway, such as moving through the rooms in your house, and hen form visual images of the to-be-remembered items sitting in locations along the pathway
  18. How long can information last in short-term memory if it is being rehearsed?
    18-20 seconds
  19. What is meant by the term “savings” in terms of memory research?
    Measured how long it took to relearn the same material after various delay
  20. What is the typical pattern of forgetting as found by Ebbinghaus?
    Forgetting is initially rapid and levels off with time
  21. What is decay theory?
    Short-term memories are lost spontaneously over time, unless the memories are kept active through rehearsal
  22. What is proactive interference?
    A process in which old memories interfere with the establishment and recovery of new memories
  23. What is the definition of the conscious mind according to Freud?
    Current awareness- things that occupy the focus of your attention at the moment
  24. What is the superego?
    The part of a person’s mind that acts as a self-critical conscience, reflecting social standards learned from parents and teachers
  25. What is the ego?
    A person’s sense of self-esteem or self-importance
  26. How does the ego-defense mechanism “repression” work?
    A process that keeps anxiety producing thoughts and feelings buried in the unconscious
  27. How does “reaction formation” work in terms of an ego defense?
    You behave in a way that is counter to how you feel
  28. Who proposed the notion of “fixation” and what does it mean?
    Watson- the inability to see a problem from a fresh or new perspective
  29. What is the second stage in Freud’s psychosexual stage model?
    Anal stage- occurring in the 2nd year of life; pleasure is derived from the process of defecation
  30. What are the characteristics of the oral stage in Freud’s model?
    Oral stage- first year of life, pleasure is derived primarily from sucking and placing things in mouth
  31. What is the order of stages in Freud’s model?
    Oral, anal, phallic
  32. What are the characteristics of the anal stage in Freud’s model?
    Pleasure arises
  33. What is the genital stage and when does it occur in Freud’s model?
    Final stage, when one develops mature sexual relationships with members of the opposite sex
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