Using the four styles contingent on the situational factors, the path-goal theory results in leaders motivating associates by all of the following ways except: Answer
1.increasing personal payoffs to associates for work-goal attainment.
2.making the path to personal payoffs easier to travel by coaching and direction.
3.reducing frustration barriers.
4.Increasing the opporunities for personal satisfaction to be independent of effective performance.
.Increasing the opporunities for personal satisfaction to be independent of effective performance.
In the Iowa leadership studies, this type of leader was very directive by nature and allowed no participation. Answer 1.Authentic.
Due to the emergence in popularity of this theory, the trait theory has resurfaced in recent times. Answer
In which type of leadership identified by the path-goal theory, does the leader ask for and uses suggestions from associates but still makes the decision? Answer 1.Supportive leadership.
In the early Michigan studies of leadership, 12 high-low productivity pairs of groups were selected, representing a high-producing section and a low-producing section. The other variables selected were all of the following EXCEPT: Answer
1.type of work.
2.type of conditions.
3.type of attitudes.
4.type of methods.
.type of attitudes.
The experiments conducted in the Iowa studies were designed primarily to examine the patterns of _____ behavior. Answer
Fiedler’s model suggests that an effective leader in an unfavorable situation, would be characterized by all of the following EXCEPT: Answer
1.the leader would take charge of the situation.
2.makes decisions that need to be made to accomplish the task.
3.makes the decisions keeping in mind everybody’s happiness.
4.makes the decisions without asking for input.
makes the decisions keeping in mind everybody’s happiness.
All of the following are the characteristics of a manager, EXCEPT: Answer
3.reliance on control.
This theory says that leaders treat individual followers differently. in particular, leaders and their associates develop dyadic (two-person) relationships that affect the behavior of both. Answer
4.Human relations theory.
This leader is very effective in both highly favorable and highly unfavorable situations. Answer
4.Laissez faire leader.
Path goal theory of leadership incorporates: Answer 1.autocratic leaders, democratic leaders, leader-member relationships.
2.three major styles of leadership – task oriented, human oriented and supportive.
3.four major styles of leadership – directive, participative, supportive and achievement-oriented. 4.two major styles of leadership – task oriented and human oriented.
four major styles of leadership – directive, participative, supportive and achievement-oriented.
The statelike positive organizational behavior view on leadership contends that leaders are born with relatively fixed traits. Answer True False
The trait approach is concerned mainly with identifying the personality traits of the leader. Answer True False
In a highly unfavorable situation, while organizing an office picnic, Fiedler explains that a task-oriented leader is successful because: Answer
1.By focusing on the task the leader will be able to create a favorable situation.
2.The human – oriented democratic leadership style works in very favorable situations only.
3.If the leader asks too many questions about what the group ought to do or how he should proceed, he is likely to be told that “we ought to go home.”
4.The task – oriented leader solicits employee suggestions for organizing the office picnic.
.If the leader asks too many questions about what the group ought to do or how he should proceed, he is likely to be told that “we ought to go home.”
According to the Contingency Model of Leadership: Answer
1.Human – oriented leaders are successful in the intermediate range of favorableness.
2.Task – oriented leaders are successful in the very favorable or very unfavorable situation.
3.Human – oriented leaders are
successful in the very favorable or very unfavorable situation.
4.Task – oriented leaders are successful in the very unfavorable situation only.
5.A & B
.A & B
All of the following are the positional resources that a leader would reward an associate who is committed and who expends a lot of effort for the unit with, EXCEPT: Answer
1.increasing the formal roles and authority between the leader and the associate.
2.increasing the volume of information shared with the associate.
3.increased confidence in the associate.
4.increased concern for the associate.
increasing the formal roles and authority between the leader and the associate.
In a study in the manufacturing organization, it was found that this style of leadership was the most effective on associates where they were involved in non-repetitive, ego-involving tasks. Answer
According to Fiedler’s model, the implication is that in general, this style of leadership would be most effective in managing human resources in the large majority of organizational situations. Answer
Scholars of leadership would agree with all of the following statements on leadership, except: Answer 1.Leaders align people to a common goal.
2.Leaders interpret and envision the future.
3.Leadership has received much research attention and is a clear and undisputed concept.
4.Leaders develop themselves and others.
Leadership has received much research attention and is a clear and undisputed concept.
The statelike positive organizational behavior (POB) constructs have potential for understanding and developing leadership. Answer True False
All of these were offered as principles of leadership in the video in the online lecture.
(1) Leaders need to know the details of the business to be better leaders.
(2) Leaders have to be obsessed with excellence.
(3) However, leaders should not be too obsessed with data. Answer True False
Correlating the Big Five and the trait theory, identify among the following personality traits, the one that has the highest average correlation with leader emergence and leadership effectiveness. Answer
3.Openness to experience.
There is no research that indicates that the followers/associates may actually affect leaders as much as leaders affect followers/ associates. Answer True False
According to Fiedler’s contingency model of leadership effectiveness, the situational favorableness was described in the terms of all of the following empirically derived dimensions EXCEPT: Answer
1.the leader-member relationship.
2.the position of power distance.
3.the leader’s position power.
4.the degree of task structure.
the position of power distance.
Which was the one trait that was found to be holding up with a degree of consistency in the voluminous research study done during the formulation of the trait theory? Answer
An important, but sometimes overlooked, finding at the early Michigan leadership studies was that employee satisfaction was not directly related to productivity. Answer True False
If your employees are engaged in ambiguous tasks then based on existing research, which leadership style would positively relate to satisfactions and expectancies? Answer 1.Directive leadership
4.Achievement – oriented leadership.
Research indicates that the Achievement-oriented leader instill employee confidence in their efforts for achieving effective performance for tasks that are: Answer
1.clear and routine.
2.ambiguous and non-repetitive.
3.non-repetitive and ego-involving.
4.clear and non-repetitive
ambiguous and non-repetitive.
In the Iowa study experiments this leadership climate actually produced the greatest number of aggressive acts from the group. Answer
The path-goal theory, like the expectancy theory in work motivation, can help in understanding the complexities of the leadership process. Answer True False
This classic style of study represents the traditional authoritarian style of leadership.
According to the Tannenbaum and Schmidt continuum of leadership behavior model, which of the following would be the behavior of an employee-centered leader?
1.The manager defines limits and asks the group to make decisions
According to Hersey and Blanchard's situational approach to leadership, the level of maturity has been identified as all of the following except: Answer
1.degree of achievement motivation.
2.willingness to take on responsibility.
3.degree of need for affiliation.
4.amount of education and/or experience.
.degree of need for affiliation.
This is a low-task, high-relationship style and is effective when followers are on the high side of maturity. Answer 1.Delegating style
The selling style of leadership: Answer
1.is a high-task, low-relationship style and is effective when followers are at a very low level of maturity.
2.is a low-task, high-relationship style and is effective when followers are on the high side of maturity.
3.is a high-task, high-relationship style and is effective when followers are on the low side of maturity.
4.is a low-task, low-relationship style and is effective when followers are at a very high level of maturity.
.is a high-task, high-relationship style and is effective when followers are on the low side of maturity.
According to research by Mintzberg, this role recognizes that managers often spend more time interacting with others outside their unit than they do working with their own leaders and subordinates. Answer
2.Disturbance handler role
According to research by Mintzberg, in the entrepreneurial role: Answer
1.managers spend a great deal of time giving and receiving information.
2.the manager uses his/her influence to motivate and encourage subordinates to accomplish organizational objectives.
3.managers often spend more time interacting with others outside their unit than they do working with their own leaders and subordinates.
4.the manager initiates the development of a project and assembles the necessary resources in this role.
the manager initiates the development of a project and assembles the necessary resources in this role.
Which of the following has Mintzberg identified as falling under the umbrella of decisional managerial roles? Answer 1.Figurehead role
2.Disturbance handler role
2.Disturbance handler role
Which of the following characteristics of leadership skills did Whetten and Cameron identify through various studies? Answer
1.The skills are behavioral
2.The skills are traits or, importantly, styles
3.The skills, in most cases, oriented toward teamwork and interpersonal relations exclusively
4.Effective leaders perform one skill or one set of skills independent of others
The skills are behavioral
The approach to leadership development, which is competency based, includes three ways that competencies have been derived. Which of the following is not included? Answer
According to Nadler and Tushman's types of charismatic leadership style, the enabling leader: Answer 1.articulates a compelling vision.
2.creates a picture of the future with which people can identify.
3.directs the generation of energy among members of the organization.
4.psychologically helps people act or perform in the face of challenging goals.
.psychologically helps people act or perform in the face of challenging goals.
According to managerial activities and behavioral descriptions derived from free observation of Luthans Real Managers Study, the staffing activity consists of: Answer 1.organizing the work.
4."filling in" where needed
fillinh in where needed
According to managerial activities and behavioral descriptions derived from free observation of Luthans Real Managers Study, the "interacting with outsiders" aspect consists of: Answer
1.appealing to higher authority to resolve a dispute. 2.external meetings
4.managing interpersonal conflict between work group members or others.
According to the Whetten and Cameron model of interpersonal skills, the "communicating supportively" aspect consists of: Answer
According to Whetten and Cameron, the "managing conflict" aspect of the interpersonal skills model consists of: Answer
2.diagnosing poor performance.
4.selecting appropriate strategies.
selecting appropriate strategies.
A recent study of top level managers in Fortune 100 firms found that compared to 20 years ago: Answer 1.more of them are male.
2.more of them were educated at elite institutions.
3.they are increasingly moving from one company to another as their careers unfold.
4.they are making it to the top faster and taking more jobs along the way.
they are increasingly moving from one company to another as their careers unfold.
According to Whetten and Cameron, personal skills consist of: Answer
3.solving problems creatively.
4.gaining power and influence.
.solving problems creatively.
This involves empowering the subordinates to make decisions and solve their own problems. Answer 1.Autonomy
As part of the controversial, yet popular, personal training methodology, these training programs have come to life following the adage that there is no training experience better than "walking a mile in the other person's shoes." Answer
One study, after finding a significant relationship between humor and individual performance, cautioned that humor and fun meshed with a more _____ and _____ leader style. Answer
The essence of Level 5 leadership is having _____ for the cause of the work - the outcome, the company, the organization - above the self. Answer
The authentic leadership development process can be proactively accelerated by all of the following ways except: Answer
1.starting with a desired end-point.
2.starting with enhanced self-awareness.
3.starting with self-regulation.
4.starting with a desired high-point.
starting with a desired high-point.
A wide array of definitions for organizational commitment have evolved but as an attitude, it is most defined as all these EXCEPT:
1.a strong desire to remain a member of a particular organization.
2.a strong desire rapidly moves up in the organizational hierarchy structure.
3.a definite belief in, and acceptance of, the values and goals of the organization. .
4.a willingness to exert high levels of effort on behalf of the organization.
.a strong desire rapidly moves up in the organizational hierarchy structure.
Ruth is a business analyst in a successful marketing firm. According to her manager Jim, she is dependable, hardworking, and self-disciplined. Considering only the qualities given, Ruth would score high on which of the following trait? Answer
3.Openness to experience
Which among the following is NOT a suggested method by the current body of research to enhance job satisfaction among employees? Answer
1.Have fair pay, benefits, and promotion opportunities. 2.Promote a serious work culture.
3.Match people with jobs that fit their interests and skills.
4.Design jobs to make them exciting and satisfying.
Promote a serious work culture
The person-situation interaction dimension suggests that people are static, acting basically the same in all scenarios. Answer True False
A study found that those with a strategic management style were most characterized by which two personality traits identified by the Big Five? Answer
1.Extraversion and agreeableness.
2.Conscientiousness and openness to experience. 3.Emotional stability and openness to experience. 4.Agreeableness and emotional stability.
Conscientiousness and openness to experience.
Which among these would NOT be included under the specific steps that can lead to successful organizational socialization? Answer
1.Providing an easy first job.
2.Providing relevant training.
3.Providing a relaxed orientation program.
4.Placing new recruits in workgroups with high morale.
Providing an easy first job.
The person-situation interaction dimension suggests that people are static, acting basically the same in all scenarios. Answer True False
Ruth has been working in an advertising firm form 5 years. She wants to change her job but does not quit because she feels that sticking on to her job is the right thing to do. Which of the following describes this commitment? Answer
In this test, some of the questions relate to how people prefer to focus their energies; evaluate and make decisions; give attention and collect information and orient oneself to the outside world. Answer 1.Organizational Commitment Questionnaire.
2.Myers-Briggs Type Indicator.
3.John Holland Method.
4.Test for the five factor model of personality.
Myers-Briggs Type Indicator.
In some studies, it has been found that the individual’s _____ moderates the relationship between conscientiousness and performance, whereas some studies show no such moderator. Answer
Continuance commitment refers to commitment based on an employee’s: Answer
1.emotional attachment, identification and involvement in the organization.
2.positive emotional state resulting from the appraisal of one’s job or job experience.
3.costs associated with leaving the organization. 4.obligation to stay with the organization. 1 points
costs associated with leaving the organization.
Which of the following is a characteristic of the person being perceived that influences social perception? Answer
1.Knowing oneself makes it easier to see others accurately.
2.The visible traits of the person perceived will greatly influence others' perception of the person.
3.Accuracy in perceiving others is not a single skill. 4.One's own characteristics affect the characteristics one is likely to see in others.
The visible traits of the person perceived will greatly influence others' perception of the person.
Which of the following trait has the strongest positive correlation with job performance? Answer 1.Conscientiousness
Research evidence indicates that _____ may not necessarily lead to individual performance improvement but does lead to departmental and organizational-level improvement. Answer
Due to the multidimensional nature of organizational commitment, there is growing support for the model proposed by Meyer and Allen and the dimensions included under this model are all of the following EXCEPT: Answer
One study done shows that people having this personality trait tend to be associated with management and sales success. Answer
4.Openness to experience.
The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) may be widely used in all these management practices EXCEPT: Answer 1.real-world career counseling.
Shawn works as an executive in an advertising firm. The management considers him to be an asset for the firm due to his creativity, artistic sensitivity, and imaginative capability. Considering only these qualities, Shawn would score high on which of the following trait? Answer
3.Openness to experience
Openness to experience
Organizational Commitment has a positive relationship with performance for those with: Answer
1.high financial needs.
2.low financial needs.
3.Both low and high financial needs.
4.None of the above
low financial needs.
Some of the historically important definitions for personality come from all these theories EXCEPT: Answer 1.trait theory.
2.psychoanalytical or psychodynamic theory.
This is defined as the ‘self perceived value that individuals have of themselves as organization members acting within an organization context.’ Answer
Which of the following does NOT occur within the cognitive processes of the person? Answer
A comprehensive definition of this is “a pleasurable or positive emotional state resulting from the appraisal of one’s job or job experience.” Answer
2.The personality of job satisfaction.
4.The work related attitude of Job satisfaction.
The work related attitude of Job satisfaction.
John has been working for an accounting firm for 15 years. The only reason he has not quit is because of the costs he associates with leaving the organization. Which of the following best explains this commitment? Answer 1.Cognitive commitment
Recently, the position taken with regards to personality is a more _____ theoretical approach drawing from all the historical theories. Answer
Which one of these theories is a theory of personality?
2.The Big Five
4.Two Factor Theory
The Big Five
All of these are dimensions within the Myers Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI), EXCEPT: Answer
1.Sensing / Intuiting
2.Extroversion / Introversion
3.Conscientiousness / Agreeableness
4.Thinking / Feeling 5.Judging / Perceiving
Conscientiousness / Agreeableness
Which of the following can be defined as a complicated interaction of selection, organization, and interpretation? Answer
1.The perceptual process
2.The socialization process
3.The cognitive process
4.The behavioral process
The perceptual process
Which of the following is the most significant cognitive aspect of perception? Answer
All of the following are characteristics of people with positive affectivity (PA), EXCEPT. Answer
1.they tend to be less absent from work.
2.they tend to perform better.
3.they experience more stress.
4.they are more satisfied.
they experience more stress.
Kate is emotionally attached to, and involved in the organization. Which of the following best describes this commitment? Answer
The major reason the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) is such a psychologically non-threatening, commonly used personality inventory is because during formulating his theory, Jung emphasized that there were no good or bad types. Answer True False
People with a high negative affectivity are more likely to experience all of the following EXCEPT: Answer 1.nervousness.
Mastery over the individual’s job is typically done by extensive andcarefully reinforced _____.
Which among the following is an ability which is most widely acknowledged as a requisite skill and ability in a generative learning organization? Answer 1.Communication.
The word virtual as used in virtual organizations comes from the popular ‘virtual reality’ and not from ‘virtual memory' , which has been used to describe a way of making a computer’s memory capacity appear to be greater than it really is. Answer True False
Scholars contend that culture exists at a: Answer
1.Visible level that is difficult to change
2.Invisible level that is easy to change
3.Visible level that is easy to change
4.Invisible level that is difficult to change
5.3 & 4
6.1 & 2
3 & 4
In a horizontal organization, employees are rewarded for _____ skills development rather than specialized expertise. Answer
Under single-loop, the organization is learning with significant changes in its basic assumptions. Answer True False
This involves breaking completely from the classical structure and establishing a totally different design. Answer
green field redesign
The real break with classical thinking on organizational structure is generally recognized to be the work of: Answer 1.Chester Barnard.
3.Frederick W. Taylor.
The first step helping solidify the acceptance of core values and ensure that the culture maintains itself within an organization is _____. Answer
1.placement on the job
3.selection of entry-level personnel
4.measuring and rewarding performance
selection of entry-level personnel
Double-loop learning _____ the nature of the organization’s objectives and the values and beliefs surrounding them. Answer
_____ consist(s) of a global network of independent companies that act as a single company with a common mission. Answer
What is the purpose of giving new personnel more work that they can handle, some of it being beneath the individual’s abilities? Answer
1.To teach the individual the importance of patience. 2.To teach the individual the importance of humility. 3.To teach the individual the importance of hard-work. 4.To teach the individual the importance of time management.
To teach the individual theimportance of humility.
A common misinterpretation is that an organization has a uniform culture. Answer True False
When the appropriate organization culture is in place, _____ can be welcomed and accommodated with as little disruption and as few problems as possible. Answer 1.diversity
Texas Instruments reverted to some highly formalized, bureaucratic procedures in their product development process. This is an example of: Answer
All of these are indicative of the relationship between culture and firm performance, EXCEPT: Answer 1.Strong cultures support organizational performance 2.Adaptive and generative cultures support efficiency and flexibility
3.Cultures aligned with the environment support performance,
4.Culture serving multiple stakeholder needs predicts firm performance.
Adaptive and generativecultures support efficiency and flexibility
When Val joined Brent Marketing Solutions as marketing research executive, he was flooded with work. He also realized that some of this work was beneath his ability. Given that Brent Market Solutions has a very strong culture, which of the following can be a reason for this? Answer
1.To teach Val the importance of time management. 2.To make Val realize the importance of patience.
3.To make Val vulnerable and to cause him to move emotionally closer to his colleagues.
4.To teach Val the importance of hard-work so that he can handle the intense pressure that is an integral part of his job.
To make Val vulnerable andto cause him to move emotionally closer to his colleagues.
The role of the leader in a learning organization constitute all these responsibilities EXCEPT: Answer
1.to prescribe appropriate rewards and punishments.
2.to inspire commitment.
3.to encourage effective decision making.
4.to build a shared vision.
to prescribe appropriaterewards and punishments
This theory challenges the contingency approach which suggests that organizations change and survive through internal transformation and adaptation. Answer 1.Behavioral approach theory.
2.Situational approach theory.
3.Organizational ecology theory.
4.Trait approach theory.
The clash between two cultures in a merger and acquisition environment can be focused into all of the following areas EXCEPT: Answer
When parts of the product or service are outsourced, it's called the "Hollow Organization" design. Answer True False
All of these are key attributes of the virtual organization, except: Answer
1.Far flung companies and entrepreneurs linked through informational networks.
2.Partnership is formal, permanent and focused on predefined opportunities.
3.Partners share a sense of co-destiny.
4.Redefines traditional boundaries.
Partnership is formal,permanent and focused on predefined opportunities.
Bill Hewlett, cutting a lock on a supply room, to reinforce the value of trust are examples of maintaining a culture through: Answer
1.placement on the job
3.selection of entry-level personnel
4.Stories and Folklore
Stories and Folklore
Creative tension stems from the gap between the organizations' continually upwardly upgraded vision and the reality and suggests the learning organization's continually questioning and challenging the status quo. Answer True False
The human-oriented cultural values representative of a learning organization consist of all these EXCEPT: Answer
1.promoting empowerment throughout the organization. 2.the flow of learning in both horizontal and vertical directions.
3.viewing mistakes as an opportunity to learn. 4.consultations and permissions of the supervisor over all aspects of one’s job.
consultations andpermissions of the supervisor over all aspects of one’s job
Identify the characteristic of organizational culture where participants interact with another, using common language, terminology, and rituals. Answer
2.Observed behavior regularities.
The systems characteristic of learning organizations recognizes the shared vision of leaders throughout the organization, and the openness to new ideas and the external environment. Answer True False
Which of the following is the final step in the socialization process? Answer
2.Adherence to Important Values
3.Reinforcing the Stories and Folklore
4.Recognition and Promotion
Recognition and Promotion
Subcultures do not weaken or undermine an organization even when they are in conflict with the dominant culture and/or the overall objectives. Answer True False
Single-loop learning is associated with _____ learning. Answer
Implementing programs such as the Six Sigma, total quality management for improving quality, are all examples of an organization making what kind of changes? Answer
Which among the following is NOT a contention put forth by Chester Barnard? Answer
1.The human participant’s ability to communicate towards a common purpose.
2.The human participant’s willingness to strive towards a common purpose.
3.The human participant’s willingness to serve towards a common purpose.
4.The human participant’s willingness to accept change readily.
The human participant’swillingness to accept change readily.
The premise of the contingency approach to organizational theory is that there is one single best way to organize. Answer True False
All of these are characteristics of a horizontal organization EXCEPT:
4. that employees are provided information on a ‘need to know basis’