# Experimental Methods T1.txt

 Four Basic Canons of Science Determinism: Events have meaningful, systematic causes.Empiricism: The method of making observations. (Making observations is the best method.)Parsimony: If we have two competing theories, we should choose the simpler or more frugal of the two.Testability: You must be able to realistically test the theory (involves Validation, Falsification & Qualification). Quasi-Experiment Naturally occurring grouping variable, but analyzed like an experiment. Independent variables vs. grouping variables Variable that is manipulated by experimenterIn a Quasi-experiment, called the grouping variable (GV) Scales of Measurement: NOIR  Nominal: – Numbers are names only, no real order. – Use Frequencies and Chi-Square Ordinal:– rank ordered, but don’t know how far apart scores are.Sprite is favorite, coke is 2nd  Interval:– Tells how far apart values are, but no true 0 point. Equal interval between units.Sprite>Coke>>>>Pepsi>>>>>>>Tea  Ratio: – like interval but with a true 0 pointTemperature Descriptive Statistics Measures of Central tendency: Mean, median, modeMeasures of Variability: Range, variance, standard deviationRange is the difference between the largest and smallest valueVariance is the average squared deviation of each score from the meanStandard deviation is the square root of the variance. Formulas Type I and Type II errors Type I error: a true null hypothesis is rejected (false positive) Type II error: Failing to regect a false null (false negative) Factors, levels, and between/within- subjects designs Factors: # of IVsLevels: Treatment conditions PER IVBetween/Within Group: Between- People are in different groups. Within- People test out all groups and compare to self. Generalizability Statistical generalizability: Allows you to generalize to the population from which you randomly selected.Practical generalizability: You can generalize to similar individuals (i.e., college students)Situational Generalizability: Can findings from the lab be applied to real life? How is the research setting different from other settings? How were the variables (IV’s & DV’s) operationalized? Grouping variable Typically categoricalMale, female1, 2, 3, 4etc The Values T= Grand Totalt= # of grand totals (always 1)A= Total for each conditiona= # of levels for the IVAS= Individual scoress= # of participants per conditionas= Total # of participants [T]=T2/as[A]=A12+A22/s[AS]=AS2 AuthorArukio ID175215 Card SetExperimental Methods T1.txt DescriptionExperimental methods and design Updated2012-10-03T10:52:40Z Show Answers