What is science?
The understanding of how things function through discovery
A. Use the scientific method to understand and explore; Observing, recording and analyzing measurements is key
B. Use scientific tools to further our scientific investigations
What is biology?
It is the study of life and its processes
What is the Cell Theory?
Supported by Pasteur’s experiment on spontaneous generation and that all living things observed under the microscope are made of at least one or more cells.
knowledge of scintific cell structure took a giant leap forward
Is a virus a living thing?
Technically no, it can only live if it infects a living thing and uses that to reproduce, and connot reproduce on its own.
Genes in a box
Tend to live in harsh environments
- Prokaryotic, single organism .
- Either linked lipids in cell membrane.
- Histone protien in cell menbrance
Includes: Mycoplasmas, cyanobacteria, Gram-positive bacteria, and Gram-negative bacteria.
- Prokaryotic, single celled organism
- Either- linked lipids in in cell membrane
- LACK histone in protien
Eukaraya are subdivided into four kingdoms: Protista, fungi, plantae, animallia
- Eukaryotic cell, single or mulitcellular
- Contains a nucleus, double-stranded DNA
Organisms that are not plants, fungi, or animals
ie. Brown alge, diatoms, dinoflagellates, red alge, paramecium euglena
Have cell wall with cellulose and chloroplasts (not all are photosynthetic, but have accessory pigment)
ie. mosses, ferns, gymnosperms(cone plants), and Angiosperms (flowering plants)
ie. Mushrooms, mold, yeast
- Have cell wall with chitin
- Reproduce with spores and gamates(sex cell)
- All are heterotrophic (cannot make its own organic food and must obtain them by consuming other organisms or organic products/ decomposer)
ie. All animals
- Have no cell wall
- All are heterotrophic
What are the two main types of cells?
Prokaryote and Eukaryote
A type of cell lacking a nucleus and other organelles. Prokaryotic cells are only found in domain Bacteria and Archaea
Is subdivided by internal membranes into different functional compnents ie. nucleus, mitochondria, Golgi apparatus ect
One of the main maufacturing facilities within a cell and produces many molecules
Made up of the Smooth ER and Rough ER
- Contains ribosomes that make the protien for the cell
- Therefore the Rough ER is the site of protien sysnthesis
- (then send to the Golgi Apparatus through vacules)
Have no ribosomes
- Makes lipids and cerbohydrates (then sends to the Glogli Apparatus through vacules)
- Dextox the cell
Recieves molecules from the ER then, refines, stores, and distributes chemical products of the cell.
Transports to other parts of the cell and outside the cell
- Are responsible for protien systhesis
- They then remain in the fluid of the cell or attache to the ER the secrected by the cell
- An atoms central core, containing protons and nutrons
- The genetic control center of a eukaryotic cell ( contains DNA)
- A sac of digestive enzymes found only in animal cells.
- Developed from vesicles that bud off the Golgi
- Break down molecules such as protiens, fats, and nucleic acid
- Responsible for cellular respiration
- Make energy(ATP) from sugars and other food molecules
- Found in almost all Eukaryotic cells
- A network of fibers, made from diferent protiens extending throughout the cytoplasm.
- Serves as the skeleton and the "muscle" for the cell, function in support and movement.
- An organelle found in plants and photsynthetic protists.
- It absorbs sunlight and uses it to power photosynthesis
- Contain stroma ( thick fluid subtance in the chloroplast)
- Contain grana (chloroplast solar packs), trap light energy and convret it to chemical energy
The nucleus and its contents, including the duplicated chromosomes, divide and are evenly distributed forming two daughter nuclei.
- The cytoplasm is divided into two.
- The combination of mitosis and cytokinesis is the mitotic phase and creates two genetically identical cells
Square Cube Law
As the cell increases the volume increases at a faster rate then the surface area. (Surface are to volume ratio decreases)
- The combination of phospholipids(two tailed fats) to create a membrane around the cytoplasm
- Allows certain molecules to enter and exit
- Has free floating protien to help regulate traffic across the membrance
What is used to transport molecules against their concentration gradient?
ATP ( active transport )
The diffusion of water across a selectively permeable membrane.
A substance that is dissolved in a liquid solvent
ie. Salt in salt water
A solution with a higher solute concentration
ie. more salt then water. Water will flow out of the cell to balance the level.
A solution with lower solute
ic. water will flow in because water concentration outside is higher
When cells export molecules through transport vesicles the fuse with the plasma membrane, spilling contents outside of the cell.
When cell inports molecules from outside to inside using vesicles
ie. cellular eating
A subatomic particle with a single (+) charge
A subatomic particle with a (-) charge
Is electrically neutral and has no charge
The number above the element
Equals the number of protons
The number below the element
Equals the number of protons and neutrons
What is the difference between Atoms and Isotopes
Isotopes have the same number of protons and electrons but different number of neutrons which change the atomic mass.
How to determine the reactivity/stabability of an atom?
Test the radiation it emmits
Ionic vs Covalent bonds
Ionic Bond: The attraction between oppositley charged ions. ie. If one element strips another element of their atom, one becomes positvely charged and one becomes (-) charged
- Covalent Bond: Forms when two atoms share one or more pairs of outer shell electrons. Much stronger then ionic bonds
Water is made up of....
- 2 Hyrdogen and 1 oxygen.
- Creates a strong hydrogen bond
- Strong hydrogen bond is responsible for waters high specific heat index and cohesion (surface tension)
Temp effects on water
- Heat must first break down the strong hydrogen bonds before it begins to boil
- when temp is reduced it causes the atoms to spread apart
- pH- Potential hydrogen
- Higher H+ becomes more acidic/lowers pH
- Lower H+ becomes more basic/raises pH
- Buffers substances that minimize change by accepting the H+ when too high and donating H+ when depleted.