RID rule for the order of object pronouns.
1. Reflexive: me, te, se, nos, os, se
2. Direct Object: me, te, lo, la, nos, os, los, las
3. Indirect Object: me te, le, nos, os, les
How is an indirect object pronoun used?
The indirect object
pronoun tells us where the direct object is going.
- He buys Maria flowers. El le compra a Maria las flores.
- The flowers are for who? For Maria.
- The subject is: He
- The DO: flowers
- The IO: Maria
He bought a gift for Maria.
He bought her a gift.
el le compró a maria un regalo.
el le compró un regalo.
Identify the Subject, DO and IO
Juan os compra un regalo.
What is a direct object?
The object that is being spoken about.
i.e. Carlita toma un café
the "café" is the DO
Translate: Carlita gave the coffee to juan
What is the IO in this sentence?
Carlita le dio a Juan la café
Juan is the IO.
Carlita gave the card to juan
Carlita gave it to Juan
Carlita gave it to him
Carlita le dio a Juan la carta
Carlita se la dio a Juan
Carlita se la dio*
*the "se" takes the place of the "le" because it is not possible to write: Carlita le la dio.
Since "le" and "les" can mean more than one thing, a prepositional phrase is often added to remove the ambiguity.
Carlo gave them the cards
Carlo gave Maria and Juan the cards
Carlos les dio las cartas
Carlos les dio a Maria y Juan las cartas
The prepositional phrase, Maria y Juan, adds clarity by telling the reader where the IO is going to
Ella le escribe una carta
This ambiguious sentence (without context) can mean any of the following...
- She writes him a letter.
- She writes her a letter.
- She writes you (formal) a letter.
Sometimes a prepositional phrase is added not for clarity, but rather for emphasis.
Juan me da a mí el dinero.
(The additional phrase "a mí" is not a must have)
John gives me the money.
(emphasizing that the money is given to me and not to someone else)
excepto, salvo, menos