1. any abstract characteristic attribute that can be measured
  2. something that points to or reflects an abstract concept
  3. a concept whose value changes from case to case
  4. determining the value of a variable in a specific case
  5. value that occurs most often in a series of numbers
  6. arithmetic average of a series of numbers
  7. value that occurs midway in a series of numbers arranged in order of magnitude
  8. quality of measuring precisely what one intends to measure; degree to which measurement accurately represents a particular social element that has been observed
  9. means that it can be replicated in the results obtained; quality of consistent measurement
  10. the variable that causes change
    independent variable
  11. the variable that changes
    dependent variable
  12. an abstraction that is comprised of key common elements of a social phenomenon; a construct for analysis
    ideal type
  13. the graphical representation of the probability density of the normal distribution
    bell curve
  14. the ability to detach from the situation at hand and view things with an objective mind.
    critical distance
  15. an organized pattern of social relationships and social institutions that constitute society and shape one's life situation.
    Social structure
  16. social patterns that are external to the individual and observable
    social facts
  17. understanding social behavior from those participating in society; one has to understand the meaning that a behavior has for people
  18. the ability to discern societal patterns that influence the individual as well as groups of individuals
    sociological imagination
  19. analyzes and studies sociology as a "whole"
  20. looks at and analyzes society at the face to face interactions
  21. stated and intended goals of social behavior
    manifest functions
  22. unintended consequences of behavior
    latent functions
  23. the study of human behavior in society
  24. the application of Darwinian thought to society; the survival of the fittest is the driving force of social evolution
    Social Darwinism
  25. established and organized systems of social behavior with a particular and recognized purpose; ex: family, religion, marriage
    social institution
  26. the complex and elaborate system of meaning and behavior that defines the way of life for a group or society
  27. rules of social behavior that guide every situation and may be formal or informal
  28. mechanisms of social control that enforce norms
    social sanctions
  29. strongly shared ideas about the nature of social reality
  30. the abstract concepts in a society that define the worth of different things and ideas
  31. the culture of the most powerful group in society
    dominant culture
  32. groups whose values and cultural patterns depart significantly from the dominant culture
  33. consists of the objects created in a given society; its buildings art, tools, toys, print and other media
    material culture
  34. includes the norms, laws, customs, ideas and beliefs of a group of people
    non-material culture
  35. strict norms that control moral and ethical behavior
  36. when some parts of culture change more rapidly than others
    culture lag
  37. when individuals play similar-rather than different-roles within the society
    mechanical solidarity
  38. occurs when people play a great variety of roles and unity is based on role differentiation, not similarity
    organic solidarity
  39. "community" characterized by cohesion based on friendships and loyalites
  40. "society" characterized by cohesion based on complexity and differentiation
  41. a collection of individuals who interact and communicate with each other, share goals and norms, and have a subjective awareness of themselves as a distinct social unit
  42. hierarchical position in a structure
  43. the expected behavior associated with a particular status
  44. the relatedness of different tasks that develop in complex societies; tasks become distinct from one another, but they are stil woven into a whole
    division of labor
  45. attained by virtue of individual effort
    achieved statuses
  46. those occupied from the moment a person is born
    ascribed statuses
  47. includes all the roles occupied by the person at a given time
    role set
  48. a process by wich we imitate the behavior of another person we admire who is in a particular role
    role modeling
Card Set
Concept Exam