GI -3-Liver and Gall bladder

  1. What is the Liver?
    • Largest glandular organ in the body
    • Has regenerative powers (replace damaged or disease cells)
    • Has a dual blood supply
    • Hepatic artery
    • heatoportal vein
  2. What are the functions of the Liver
    • Maintains blood flucose levels
    • stores excess iron
    • stores fat-soluble vitamins (A, D, K, but not E[adipose tissue])
    • Synthesizes plasma proteins
    • synthesizes clotting factos
    • detoxifications
    • bile production
  3. What is the Gallbladder?
    • A small, sac-like structure under the liver
    • stores and concentrates bile continually secreted by the liver
    • Release of bile via cystic duct to common hepatic duct is corrdinated with apperance of fats in duodenum
  4. When doese liver dysfunction occur?
    when chronic liver cell damage cannot repair and fibrous tissue replaces hepatocytes
  5. What is Jaundice
    • Yellow or organge coloration of the skin, mucus, and/or eyes
    • Caused by a build-up of bilrubin, a byproduct of old RBCS
    • Bilifubin is secreted in the bile and excreted in the feces
    • Jaundice is not a disease
  6. What causes too many RBC retiring for liver to handle leading to excess bilirubin production
    • Liver dysfunction
    • Blockage of common bile duct
  7. What are cuases of Juandice
    • Hepatic tumors obstruct either intrhepatic or extrahepatic biliary ducts
    • gallstones in ductal system comprising cystic duct, common bile duct, or pancreatic duct
    • congential defect
  8. Regardless of cause Impeded bile flow leads to bile leaking into blood with bilirubin coloring the plasma producing:
    • Darker Colored Urine
    • Lighter colored (Clay-colored) Stools
  9. Regardless of the cause Complication of gallbladder or bile ducts caused by
    • infection
    • inflamation
  10. Regardless of the cause lack of bile interfers with
    • Fat digestion and absorbtion
    • Fat-soluable vitamin absoption and deficiencies
    • Indicative of liver diseases such as hepatitis or cirrhosis
  11. Viatmin A Deficiency
    vision impariments
  12. Viatmin D Deficiency
    Skeletal abnormalities
  13. Viatmin E Deficiency
    RBC hemoloysis
  14. Viatmin K Deficiency
    excessive bleeding
  15. Causes Inflmation of the liver include
    • Immunologic damage - Autoimune hepatitis
    • Infections-Microorganistiom - Bateria, Parasites, Viruses (Hep A-E)
    • Toxic Damage - Alcohol, Poisonous mushrooms, medications
  16. Symptoms of Inflamation of the Liver include
    • Abnormal Pain or distention
    • Male Gynecomastia
    • Dark Urine
    • Light or clay-colored stools
    • Fatigue
    • Juandice
    • Loss of appetite
    • Low-grade fever
    • Nausea and vomiting
    • Weight loss
    • General itching
  17. Test and Diagnoisis for inflamation of the liver
    • Physical examination
    • Labatory examination
  18. Common risk factors for inflamation of the liver
    • Intervanous drug users
    • risky sexual behavoirs
    • traveling to areas with high infection rates
    • Exposure to family member who recently had hep A
    • Using or abusing alcohol
    • Organ transplant reciepent
    • Blook transhussion before 1990
    • Maternal transmission
    • Healthcare worker
    • Receivening acupunture, body piercing or tatoo
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GI -3-Liver and Gall bladder
Liver and Gall bladder