ANTH 101 CH 5-7

  1. Language
    primary means of communication, spoken and written
  2. Call Systems
    communication systems of nonhuman primates
  3. Cultural Transmission
    transmission through learning, basic to language
  4. Productivity
    creating new expressions that are comprehensible to other speakers
  5. describing things and events that are not present; basic to language
  6. Kinesics
    study of communication through body movements and facial expressions
  7. Phonology
    study of a language's phonemics and phonetics
  8. Morphology
    linguistic study of morphemes and word construction
  9. Lexicon
    vocabulary; all the morphemes in a language and their meanings
  10. Syntax
    arrangement of words in phrases and sentences
  11. Phoneme
    smallest sound contrast that distinguishes meaning
  12. Phonetics
    study of speech sounds - what people actually say
  13. Phonemics
    study of sound contrasts (phonemes) in a language
  14. Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis
    idea that different languages produce different patterns of thought
  15. Focal Vocabulary
    set of words describing particular domains (foci) of experience
  16. Ethnosemantics
    study of lexical (vocabulary) categories and contrasts
  17. Semantics
    a language's meaning system
  18. Style Shifts
    varying one's speech in different social contexts
  19. Diglossia
    language with "high" and "low" dialects
  20. Honorifics
    terms of respect
  21. Black English Vernacular (BEV)
    rule-governed dialect spoken by some African Americans
  22. Vernacular
    ordinary, casual speech
  23. Homonyms
    words that sound the same but have different meanings
  24. Subgroups
    (linguistics) closely related languages
  25. Historical Linguistics
    study of languages over time
  26. Daughter Languages
    languages sharing a common parent language (i.e. Latin)
  27. Protolanguage
    language ancestral to several daughter languages
  28. they can't combine the calls for food and danger into a single utterance
    Research on communication skills of nonhuman primates reveals that ___.
  29. Cultural Transmission
    When Washoe and Lucy tried to teach sign language to other chimps, this was an example of ___ ___.
  30. mutation / linguistic / cultural abilities
    Recent research on the origin of language suggests that a ___ in humans (150K y.a.) may have conferred selective advantages (___ and ___ ___).
  31. They may convey or imply a status difference between the speaker and the person being referred to or addressed.
    Why would sociolinguists be interested in studying the use of honorifics?
  32. changes in culture produce changes in language and thought rather than the reverse.

    (as opposed to the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis)
    Studies on the differences between female and male Americans inregard to the color terms they use suggest that ___.
  33. Symbolic Domination
    Pierre Bourdieu's term: In a stratified society, even people who do not speak the prestige dialect tend to accept it as "standard" or superior.
  34. 500 / 7,000
    The world's linguistic diversity has been cut in half in the past ___ years, and half of the remaining ___ laguages are predicted to disappear during this century.
  35. Ethnic Group
    one among several culturally distinct groups in a society or region
  36. Ethnicity
    identification with an ethnic group
  37. Status
    any position that determines where someone fits in society
  38. Ascribed Statuses
    social statuses based on little or no choice (i.e. age)
  39. Achieved Statuses
    Social statuses based on choices or accomplishments
  40. Race
    ethnic group assumed to have a biological basis
  41. Racism
    discrimination against an ethnic group assumed to have a biological basis
  42. Racial Classification
    assigning organisms to categories (purportedly) based on common ancestry
  43. Phenotype
    characteristics that are physically visible
  44. Descent
    social identity based on ancestry
  45. Hypodescent
    children assigned to same group as minority parent
  46. Stratified
    class-structured, with differences in wealth, prestige, and power
  47. Nation
    society sharing a language, religion, history, territory, ancestry, and kinship
  48. State
    stratefied society with formal, central government
  49. Nation-State
    an autonomous political entity, a country
  50. Nationalities
    ethnic groups that have, once had, or want their own country
  51. Colonialism
    long-term foreign domination of a territory and its people
  52. Assimilation
    absorption of minorities within a dominant culture
  53. Plural Society
    Society with economically interdependent ethnic groups
  54. Multiculturalism
    view of cultural diversity as valuable and worth maintaining
  55. Prejudice
    devaluing a group because of its assumed attributes
  56. Stereotypes
    fixed ideas about what members of a group are like
  57. Discrimination
    policies and practices that harm a group and its members
  58. Genocide
    deliberate elimination of a group through mass murder
  59. Ethnocide
    destruction of cultures of certain ethnic groups
  60. Refugees
    people who flee a country to escape persecution of war
  61. Cultural Colonialism
    internal domination by one group and its culture or ideology over others
  62. Situational Negotiation of Social Identity
    when claimed or perceived identity varies depending on the audience
  63. human populations have not been isolated enough from one another to develop such discrete groups.
    Humanity lacks "races/breeds" because ___.
  64. genetic basis
    Phenotypical similarities and differences don't necessariyl have a ___ ___.
  65. increasingly focusing their attention on explaining why specific biological variations occur.
    Rather than attempting to classify humans into racial categories, biologists and anthropologists are ___.
  66. Historically in Brazil, freed offspring of master and slave filled many intermediate positions in the emerging Brazilian economy.
    What historical fact helps to explain the differences between American and Brazilian social constructions of race?
  67. Adaptive Strategy
    means of making a living; productive system
  68. Correlation
    association; when one variable changes, another does, too
  69. Band
    basic social unit among foragers; less than 100 people - may split seasonally
  70. Horticulture
    nonindustrial plant cultivation with fallowing
  71. Agriculture
    cultivation using land and labor continuously and intensively
  72. Cultivation Continuum
    continuum of land and labor use
  73. Pastoralists
    herders of domesticated animals
  74. Nomadism, Pastoral
    annual movement of entire pastoral group with herds
  75. Transhumance
    only part of population moves seasonally with herds
  76. Economy
    system of resource production, distribution, and consumption
  77. Mode of Production
    specific set of social relations that organizes labor
  78. Means (Factors) of Production
    major productive resource (i.e. land, labor, capital, technology)
  79. Redistribution
    flow of goods into center, then back out; characteristic of chiefdoms
  80. Reciprocity
    principle governing exchanges among social equals
  81. Market Principle
    buying, selling, and valuation based on supply and demand
  82. Reciprocity Continuum
    runs from generalized (closely related/deferred return) to negative (strangers/ immediate return) reciprocity.
  83. Generalized Reciprocity
    Exchanges among closely related individuals
  84. Balanced Reciprocity
    Midpoint on reciprocity continuum, between generalized and negative
  85. Negative Reciprocity
    potentially hostile exchanges among strangers
  86. Potlatch
    competitive feast on North Pacific Coast of North America
  87. stratification
    Ceremonial redistribution of material goods inhibits ___.
  88. kin-based
    In nonindustrial societies, a ___ mode of production prevails.
  89. they suggest correlations
    Typologies are useful tools of analysis because ___.
  90. separation from the product of one's labor
    Economic alienation in industrial societies comes about as a result of ___.
Card Set
ANTH 101 CH 5-7
Language, Ethnicity, Working