What is the difference between individuality and specificity?
- Individuality: consider the spedific needs and abilities of the individual
- Specificity: stress the physiological systems critical for the specific sport.
What is reversibility?
Body wants to return to status before workout, so it is important to include a program to maintain fitness.
What is progressive overload?
increase the training stimulus as the body adapts
Is it better to increase the workload every day or alternate between hard/easy workouts?
what is periodization:
cyle specificity, intensity, and volume of training. (peak training at certain times)
Is hypertrophy or hyperplasia more common in cats?
Early in a workout program, does neural factors or hypertrophy factors play a bigger role?
Neural factors initially, hypertrophy factors after a period of time.
What is acute muscle soreness?
pain during or immediately following exercise. Usually when there is a lack of blood flow. Pain leaves min to hours after blood flow returns
What is DOMS (Exercise-induced muscle damage)?
- Delayed onset of soreness (24-48 hrs)
- Eccentric contraction soreness hurst the worst (elbow flexion and running downhill)
- Caused by damage to muscle fibers, etc
What is effective in preventing soreness and what is not?
1. Start out light with little eccentric
2. Start out heavy with lots of eccentric
5. Vitamin C- gets rid of free radicals
- Effective: 1,5
- Ineffective: 2, 3, 4
What percent of energy is lost if humans eat animals rather than plants?
What are the three fuel sources in the body?
What is the fuel use ratio at rest?
1/3 carbs, 2/3 fats, but during exercise it's almost all carbs
where are carbs stored in the body?
as glucose in the liver and muscles as glycogen
Where is fat stored in the body?
stored under skin and in muscle. Less readily available than carbs
What percent of protein can be used during exercise?
What are the two types of metabolism that utilizes ATP?
- Anaerobic: without O2, fast
- Aerobic: with O2, slow
What is glycogenolysis?
when glycogen breaks down to glucose to be used in the muscles
What is glycogenesis?
When glucose gets synthesized to glycogen and stored in the liver
What is gluconeogenesis?
When amino acids get transfered as glucose to the glucose pool
What is the ATP-PCr system?
- less than 15 seconds for an all out sprint. first of the three systems. Immediate
- PCr is converted to creatine, energy and Pi, Pi combines with ADP to make ATP
What is glycolysis?
Breakdown of glucose, may be anaerobic or aerobic
What is the glycolytic system?
- 15 sec to 1 min. Occurs in the cytoplasm. pyruvate=>lactate=>NAD+
- short term energy system
Is lactate harmful for the body?
No, it is used as fuel, converted to NAD+
What is the oxidative system?
- Long term system, includes krebs cycle, ETC, etc. up to several hours
- occurs in the mitochondria
How much ATP does each fuel system use?
- ATP-PCr: 1
- glycolysis: 2-3
- oxidative from carbs: 36-39 (38 if glucose, 39 if glycogen)
- oxidative from fat: >100
Why can't fats be utilized without carbs?
in the krebs cycle, toward the end, oxaloacetate makes glucose, hence fat sources can't be used
What are the disadvantages of a direct calorimeter?
- no record of rapid energy expenditure
- core temp increases
- ergometer produces heat
What is an indirect calorimeter and what is the respiratory exchange ratio?
- indirect calorimeter: measure O2 and Co2 exchanged at the lungs.
- RER: VCO2/VO2
- RER at rest is usually .78-.80
time of workout
what formula can be used to find how many calories were burned?
(t*VO2)*Energy from graph next to RER= calories burned
What is O2 deficit?
difference between O2 required and O2 supplied. At beginning of exercise
What is Excess post-exercise O2 consumption (EPOC)?
- O2 consumed after exercise above resting VO2.
- When you finish exercise and breathing hard, it's excess O2 inhaled until normal.
What is lactate threshold?
- point at which LA accumulates.
- 50-60% VO2 max in untrained
- 70-80% in trained
To find resting Metabolism, take L O2/day times RER equivalent energy. Is this a true representation?
No. Usually people don't lay in bed all day, to get a true representation, times answer by 1.5
What's the difference between relative and absolute VO2 max?
- absolute: does not determine person's weight. measured in L/min
- relative: factors in person's weight. measured in ml/kg/min