What are the causes of cellular injury?
- Hypoxia––most common
- Direct physical action
- Ionizing radiation
- Toxic molecular injury
- Inflammatory and immune reactions
- Nutritional imbalance
- Genetic defects
What are some obstacles to normal repair?
- Poor nutrition
- Steroid drug use
- Poor blood supply
- Foreign bodies
- Mechanical factors
What are the four classical signs of inflammation?
- Swelling (tumor)
- Redness (rubor)
- Pain (Dolor)
- Heat (Calor)
What are the 4 stages of repair of a broken bone?
- 1Hematoma (blood-filled swelling) is formed
- 2Break is splinted by fibrocartilage to form a callus
- 3Fibrocartilage callus is replaced by a bony callus
- 4Bony callus is remodeled to form a permanent patch
What are complications of a fracture?
- Muscle Spasms
- Compartment Syndrome
- Fat Emboli
- Nerve Damage
What are the 3 most common sites of a non-union fracture?
Scaphoid, talus, and 5th metatarsal
What are the four goals of osteoarthritis treatment?
- 1.to control pain
- 2.to improve joint function
- 3.to maintain normal body weight
- 4.to achieve a healthy lifestyle
What is the treatment of OA?
- weight control
- rest and relief from stress on joints
- nondrug pain relief techniques
- medications to control pain
- complementary and alternative therapies
What are the methods of diagnosing OA?
- *No single test can diagnose osteoarthritis*
- Clinical history
- Physical examination
- X rays
- Magnetic resonance imaging
- Blood tests to rule out other causes of symptoms
- Joint aspiration
What is gout?
- A painful condition that occurs when the bodily waste product uric acid is deposited as needle-like crystals in the joints and/or soft tissues.
- In the joints, these uric acid crystals cause inflammatory arthritis, which in turn leads to intermittent swelling, redness, heat, pain, and stiffness in the joints.
What risk factors are associated with osteoporosis?
- *Not modifiable:
- Gender (women)
- Age (elderly)
- Body size (small thin boned)
- Ethnicity (caucasian & asian)
- Family history
- Sex hormone levels
- Calcium and Vitamin D intake
- Medication Use (Long-term glucocorticoids)
- Cigarette Smoking
- Alcohol Intake
What is the treatment for osteoporosis?
- Proper Nutrition (Calcium and Vitamin D)
- Exercise (Improves bone health & Increases surrounding muscular stability)
- Safety Issues to Prevent Falls
- Therapeutic Medication
What are the contraindications for osteoporosis?
- AVOID FLEXION EXERCISES
- Be careful of shearing or rotational activities
What is the PT intervention for osteoporosis?
- The importance of low impact
- Teach fall prevention
- Strengthen extensors
- Postural stability