GI 2 gallbladder.txt

  1. Gallstones (cholelithiasis or biliary calculi)
    • hard, pebble-like deposits of bile salt that form inside the gallbladder
    • sizes range rom grains of sand to golf ball sized
    • affect ~1 million Americans yearly
    • women are 2x more likely to be affected than men
    • arise when either bile composition changes or gallbladder muscle contractility reduces
  2. "F"s of gallstones
    • female
    • fat
    • fertile
    • forty years of age
    • fair-skinned
    • flatulent
  3. Composition of gallstones
    • cholesterol
    • bilirubin
    • calcium
  4. Symptoms of gallstones
    • no pain
    • exruciating pain when in common bile duct (right, upper or middle upper quadrant, intermittent, sharp or dull and occurs within minutes of a meal)
    • fever
    • jaundice
  5. Diagnosis of gallstones
    • ultrasound or x-ray
    • also how they are located
  6. Treatments of gallstones
    • pain management
    • surgical removal of the gallbladder
    • medications
    • lithotripsy
  7. Cholecystitis
    • inflammation of the gallbladder that causes severe abdomial pain
    • two types: acute (sudden in onset) and chronic
  8. Chronic gallstones
    • long-standing swelling, irritation and inflammation of the gallbladder
    • usually caused by repeated acute cholecystitis attack
    • causes gallbladder to lose its ability to concetrate bile
    • thickens gallbladder wall, affecting contracile properties of gallbladder smooth muscle
  9. Complications of chronic gallstones
    • loss of blood flow
    • infarction
    • gangrene
    • rupture
    • peritonitis
    • biliary fibrosis
  10. Symptoms of gallstones
    • pain radiating from right ribcage to right shoulder blade
    • chills and fever
    • nausea and vomiting
    • belching
    • indigestion
Card Set
GI 2 gallbladder.txt
GI part 2, gallbladder