Biology Test 1

    • MEGA: 1,000,000(MILLION)
    • KILO:1,000( THOUSAND)
    • HECTO: 100 ( HUNDRED)
    • DECKA: 10 (TEN)
    • deci: 1/10 (tenth)
    • centi:1/100 ( hundredth )
    • milli: 1/1,000 (thousandth)
    • micron: 1/1,000,000 (millionth)
  2. What is an atom?
    smallest unit of life

    Ex: Hydrogen
  3. Molecules?
    More than one atom bond together

    Ex: DNA
  4. organelles?
    Complex molecules assembled into compartments

    Example: nucleus
  5. Tissue?
    collection of cells performing the same function. 
  6. Major types of Tissue? function of each?
    • (1) Connective, Epithelical, muscle and Nervous
    • (2)
    • C= bind and support other tissues
    • E= protective barries that protects the body from microorganism, injury and fluid loss. 
    • M= produce force and cause motion
    • N=responsible for sending stimuli and transmit signals to and from different parts of an organism
  7. Organ?
    collection of tissue for a common function
  8. Organ System?
    collecton of organs with a common function
  9. Organism?
    organs systems funtioning together to form the organism 

    Ex: person
  10. population?
    a group of organism living in the same place 

    ex: a flock of geese on a pond
  11. species?
    a population capable of interbreeding ex: dogs
  12. community?
    consist of many population living together in the same habitat. 

    ex: geese shre the pond with ducks, fish, grasses
  13. ecosystem?
    a biological community

    ex: desert ecosystem
  14. metabolism?
    is the set of chemical reaction that happen in living organism to maintain life.

    • ex: imagine candle 
    • Big fire - high metabolism 
    • Small fire- low metabolism
  15. Homeostasis 
    the ability to regulate the internal environment and remain stable 

    ex: thermometer 
  16. Interaction with the environment
    ecosystem- a community  of various plants and animals interacting in their habitat
  17. FLOW OF ENERGY- everything gets their energy from the sun
    Autotroph: organism that is able to form nutriotional organic substances from simple inorganic substances such as CO2 (Self-feeder)

    Heterotroph: organism that cannot make organic molecules from iorganic molecules from inorganic ones. (other-feeders)

    Decomponser: organism that breaks down dead o decaying organism
  18. Photosynthesis
    It's the process whereby plants, algae and certain bacteria transform light energy into chemical energy, using CO2 and H2O as starting materials.

    Formula: CO2 + H2O -----> C6H12O6 + O2
  19. cellular respiration 
    Harvest food energy to produce ATP. (it release energy from sugar)

    Formula: C6H12O6 + O2 ----> CO2 + H2O + E(nergy)
  20. DNA? Gene?
    where Traits are found.
    • DNA: biological macromolecule that encodes genetic info.
    • Gene: a section of dna that encodes the structure of a protein. 

    Cell- Nucleus -Chromosomes - DNA- Gene
  21. unity and diversity of life. 
    classification of living organism.
    6 kingdom of LIFE. 
    • UNITY: concept that means that "all life came from one organism" so that all life is similar but diff.
    • DIVERSITY:we came from the same organism but from a different brnch of tree life. (diff habitat, food, envir..)

    - Protozoans, Fungi, Bacteria, Plant, Animal

    • Archaea- prokaryote
    • Bacteria- prokaryote
    • Protist- Eukaryote
    • Fungi- Eukaryote
    • Plants- Eukaryote
    • Animals- Eukaryote
    DOC 1
    atoms with the same atomic number but differ in number of neutrons

    • C12: stable isotope; nuclei remain intact forever
    • C14: radioactive isotope; nucleus decays, giving off particles and energy
  24. Atomic Number
    The number of protons
  25. Atomic MAss
    The number of protons and neutrons
  26. Protons
    it makes up the nucleus; positive charge
  27. neutrons
    has neutral charge
  28. Electrons

    has a negative charge. surronds the nucleus

    • 1sr orbit: 2 e-
    • 2nd orbit: 8 e-
  29. Valence
    = electrons needed to fill outer orbit
  30. HYDROGEN (H)
    • at #: 1
    • MA: 1
    • P: 1
    • N: 0
    • E: 1
    • 1st: 1
    • 2nd: 0
    • VAL: 1
  31. OXYGEN (O)
    • at #: 8
    • MA: 16
    • P:  8
    • N: 8
    • E: 8
    • 1st: 2 
    • 2nd: 6
    • VAL: 2 
  32. NITROGEN (N)
    • at #: 7
    • MA: 14
    •  P:  7
    • N: 7
    • E: 7
    • 1st: 2
    • 2nd: 5
    • VAL:3 
  33. CARBON (C)
    • at #: 6
    • MA: 12
    • P: 6
    •  N: 6
    • E: 6
    • 1st: 2
    • 2nd: 4
    • VAL: 4 
  36. PH

    acid-neutral-base (0-14)
    *Acids:  greater the H+ ions, stronger the acid

    *Base(alkaline): greater the amount OH- ions, stronger the base
  37. Hydrogen ION (H+)
    formed by removal of the electron from atomic hydrogen and found in all aqueous solution of acids
  38. Hydroxide ION (OH-)
    formed by a gain of electron. Oxygen and hydrogen
  39. IONS    
    protons are not equal to electrons
  40. Dissociation or ionization
    the breaking of water molecule

    H2o ----> H+ + OH-
  41. Cloride ion
    formed when clorine atom gain an electron (Cl-
  42. Sodium Ion
    formed when Sodium atom loses 1 electron (Na+
    the opposite charges of the atoms attract each other (ex; NaCl)
  44. Covalent BOnds
    caused by sharing electrons
  45. Polar covalent bonds
    formed by 2 kinds of method
    • COH 
    • essential oil: vanila
  48. KETONE
    CO R'
  49. ACID (organic acid)
  50. AMINE
  52. DEHYDRATION SYNTHESIS (condensation)
    chemical reaction that REMOVES a molecule of water

    -water comes out
  53. HYDROLYSIS (digestion)
    breaking of molecules. cell break bonds btw monomers by ADDING water to them.

    -water comes in
  54. macromolecules
    monomers: single molecule

    polymers: more than 1 molecule
  55. Hydrophilic (love)
    • molecules that dissolve or interact with water
    • (salt and water)
  56. hydrophobic (dislike)
    • fats that float and dont dissolve in water 
    • (oil and water)
  57. Carbohydrate
    • made of sugar.
    • (CH2O)n
    molecules with the same formula but different chemical arrangements
  59. MOnosaccharide
    • C6H12O6
    • single sugar
    • cannot b broken down by hydrolysis into smaller sugar
    • glucose, Fructose and Galactose
  60. Disaccharides
    • double sugar
    • form from 2 monosaccharides through a dehydration reaction
    • Lactose(milk), Maltose( barley grain), and Sucrose(cane)

  61. Polysaccharide
    • known(starch or carbohydrate)
    • very long chain of sugar 
    • Starch, Glycogen, and Cellulose
    • S- found in plants; provides energy, cell parts and reserve energy
    • G- animal starch; stored in the liver.
    • C- plant cells walls. cannot be broken by animals, known as fiber.(cotton, paper)
  62. FATS (animal)  - LIPIDS (plant)
    • Fats- solid, lard and grease
    • Lipids- liquid, oil and olive, peanut

    • made of: Glycerol + 3 fatty acids 
    • knows as tryglycerides
  63. Faty Acids
    a chain of carbon with an acid in the end
  64. LIPIDS
    • C3H803 - GLYCEROL 
    • F.A. chains of carbon w oxygen and hydrogen 
    • 3 kinds of lipids:
    • 1.saturated- have single bonds from 1C to the next, generally animal fat. (bad)
    • 2. monounsaturated fat- have 1 double bonds btw Carbon( found oild, avocado
    • 3. Polyunsaturated fat- have more than one double bonds btw carbon( found in fish, nuts) (OMEGA-3
  65. why fats?
    • provides back-up energy
    • provides insulation
    • protects organs
    • insulates nerve fiber
    • cell membranes 
    addition of hydrogen to the unsaturated bonds results in suturated bonds, effectively increasin the meltin point of the oil and thus hardening it.

    knows as trans-fat ( fats that go from unsaturated to saturate by hydrogenation)
  67. adipose 
    special cells that store fat cells
  68. cholesterol 
    • -ringed shape steroids 
    • produced by liver to make: hormones, vitamin D, bil salts, cell membrane
  69. HDL - LDL
    • HDL: is a lipoprotein that carries lipids from the liver that are useful to the body(GOOD
    • LDL:is a lipotrotein that carries dietary lipds and sometimes puts them in arteries (BAD
  70. phospholipids
    class of lipids and are a major component of all cell membranes as they can form lipid bilayers

    =phosphorus + two fatty acids
  71. emulsification
    bile breaks up the fat droplets(emulsify) so it can be digested

    Bile: a juice produced by the liver, stored in the gall bladder, andsecreted through a duct into the duodenum
  72. amino acids
    • organic compunds that conines to form protein. it has 20 kinds.
    • R group- the rest of AA
  73. peptide
    2 amino acids combined
  74. Enzymes
    protein chemical that change the rate of a chemical reaction without being changed in the process.
  75. collagen
    • most common protein. found in animals, skin, bone, bood.
    • strenghts blood vessels.
  76. hemoglobin
    are red blood cells protein wih 5-- amino Acids. carries oxygen from the lngs to the body tissues and take CO2 from the tssue to the lungs. 
  77. nucleotides
    the building blocks of nucleic acids. it contains 3 parts: Sugar, Phosphate, and nitrogen bonds
  78. RNA
    • Messeger RNA
    • Transfer RNA
    • form a single strand
    • distict base: Uranil `
  79. Nitrogen Bases
    Adenine, Guanine, Thymine and Cytosine.
  80. ATP
    its the body's energy compund; 
Card Set
Biology Test 1
First Bio exam - DOC 1