Primary Sources

  1. In Defense of Manly Honor
    • Euphiletus, A Husband Speaks in His Own Defense
    • murdered wife's lover (says jury would do the same)
    • - Eratosthenes seduced wife and brought shame on kids
    • - did not kill him for $$
    • -First attitude on marriage: loved wife, didn't want to annoy, trust came when kid came
    • - Eratosthenes, after mom's funeral, went to maid adn set up the whole affair
    • - Euphiletus comes home one day when he's over, but, even though wife is being suspicious, he doesn't suspect anything until old hag tells him
    • - he questions maid; she helps him catch him
    • - gets a crowd of men adn kills him "law of state kills him"
    • - Law of Solon: alduterer can be put to death by man who catches him
  2. Cultivating Justice and Piety
    • Cicero, On the Commonwealth
    • - Cicero highlights moral values and sense of destiny
    • - Scipio the Elder comes to YOunger in a dream and prophecies that:
    • - he will destroy Carthage and Numantia
    • - he will experience disorder of Gracchan reforms adn everyone will look to him for guidance as dictator [didn't happen]
    • - restrictions of body (younger wants to be with them, but must stay on earth and fulfill duty)
    • - duty is to look after the world
    • - scorn what is human because human glory is wrothless
    • - live by virtue
  3. Failure and Factionalism
    • The Gracchan Reforms:
    • - Veterans displaced and Tiberius initiates reforom
    • He went to countryside--> unpopulated
    • - people wanted him to reinstate poor to former possessions
    • - Got advice--> created law that was gentle even to those who should be punished
    • - moneyed men tried to give him bad name= fail
    • - Tiberius argues that the savage beasts take benefits of the workers; army peopl die to maintain the senate's wealth
    • - Octavius, other tribue, persuaded to oppose him; opposes his law
    • - Tiberius tries to take away his tribuneship, making a huge scene
    • - Law passed; Octavius carried away by servants
    • - Law ratified and he proposes that the land from Pergamum get divided and distributed as well
  4. Toward Empire
    • Julius Caesar, The Gallic War
    • - Gauls not happy about Caesar's successes--> Battle at fortress of Alesia
    • - Caesar had baggage protected; pursued and killed about three thousand, laying seige on city's position and provoking panic in the enemy
    • - circumvallation (construction of forts for protection and seige)
    • - Alesia on hill and Gallic forces constructed ditch and six- ft wall
    • - Romans: 10 miles and 23 forts
    • - Caesar was told that Vercingetorix tried to build army and decided to create 20 ft ditches adn forts in back
    • - fought; Caesar sent aid to those who needed it and motivated the men to fight; eventually, he fought as well
    • - The enemy fled and they pursued 
    • - Vercingetorix submitted
  5. Exacting Science
    • Eratosthenes, Measurement of hte Earth
    • - geographer and mathematician
    • - Alexandria and Syene were chosen as measuring points because distance known and they lie along same meridian circlue (1/15  a circle)
    • - sun rays are parallel/ angles are equal
    • - Sun analyzed at summer sostice
    • - Syene: no shadow when Alexiandria had a shadow (and vice versa)
    • - Drew an arc and straight lines from sundial to sun
    • - ratio--> circumference
  6. The Conquest of New lands
    • Arrian, The Campaigns of Alexander the Great
    • -2nd century CE
    • - Alex just returned to Persia due to protest
    • - speech:
    • - Philip gave you clothes, taught you how to fight, rescued you from slavery, opened country to trade
    • - He was left in debt, and added to empire, allowing them to enjoy wealth
    • - He has nothing because they're equals
    • - They have the same wounds 
    • - His dismissal of the men was because they were not fit for service
    • - He tells them to go home and tell how htey abandoned him
    • - retreated to palace, while men stood in silence until they heard they were going to be replaced by Persians
    • - they begged for forgiveness and were all kinsmen--> celebration
  7. Establishing Law and Justice
    • King Hammurabi, The Code of Hammurabi
    • - early 18th century
    • - concerned with protecting property rights and the social hierarchy
    • - When Atum and Enlil created world, they gave Hammurabi the responsibility of promoting welfare of hte people
    • - deals with accusors (if a seignior accused another and brought charge of murder against him with no proof, accuser put to death)
    • - deals with burglers (if seignior committed robbery and caught, put to death; stolen young son of another, death)
    • - deals with consequences of helping slaves (help escape--> death)
    • - based on classes
    • - commerce and land tenure emphasized and receipts (if merchant lent something with no receipt, the money may not be credited to account; if purchased animal with no witnesses, death)
    • - emphasis on marriage contracts (no contract, no marriage)
    • - emphasis on gods in daily life; people pray to them
    • - men punishable by death/ women get thrown in river alot
    • - Money lessens with class (miscarriage of seignior daughter--> 10 shekels, slave--> 2 shekels
  8. Writing Experiences
    • Egyptian Scribal Exercise Book
    • The Idle Scribe is Worthless: Wenemdiamum resists listening and writing and learning--> like a goose that does no work, but destroys
    • All Occupations Bad Except that of the Scribe: 
    • Washerman's days are up and down; potmakers live in bog; cobblers stink; watchmen prepares; outworker has the toughest job; merchants are too busy and get wealth taken from tax collectors; ships crew leaves but never returns; carpenter has too hard work
    • Misfortunes of the Peasant: -farm labor 24/7; gets team; goes to work; jackals get to them; fields broken up; borrows grain; no harvest--> beating
    • Be A Scribe: Body sleek; hands soft; people answer you; free man
    • The Scribe Does Not Suffer Like the Soldier: lowerst; unskilled man= unknown; soldier is dead while living due to suffers
  9. Formulizing Roman Law
    The Twelve Tables (see other flashcards)
Card Set
Primary Sources