Anatomy Chapter 3

  1. Tissue
    A group of cells that usually have a common function and are similar in structure.
  2. Four Major Families of Tissues
    • 1. Epithelial Tissue
    • 2. Connective Tissue
    • 3. Muscle Tissue
    • 4. Nervous Tissue
  3. Epithelial Tissue
    • Covers body surfaces; lines hollow organs, body cavities, and ducts; forms glands
    • Allows body to interact with internal and external environments
  4. Connective Tissue
    Protects and supports the body and its organs; binds organs together; stores energy reserves as fat; provides immunity
  5. Muscle Tissue
    • Provides movement and generation of force
    • Generates heat that warms the body
  6. Nervous Tissue
    Initiates and transmits nerve impulses (signals) that help control and coordinate body activities.
  7. All tissues develop from what?
    Three (embryonic) primary germ layers.
  8. Primary germ layers
    Ectoderm, Endoderm, and Mesoderm
  9. Three main functions of Epithelial Tissue or Epithelium 
    • 1. Selective Barriers
    • 2. Secretory surfaces (to release products)
    • 3. Protective Surfaces
  10. Two Major types of epithelium
    • 1. Covering and lining epithelium
    • 2. Glandular epithelium
  11. Covering and lining Epithelium
    • Outer covering of skin and some internal organs or vessels, ducts and cavities. 
    • Interior of respiratory, digestive, urinary, and reproductive systems.
  12. Glandular Epithelium
    Secreting portion of glands (Ex: Thyroid, adrenal, sweat glands)
  13. Simple epithelium 
    • Single layer of cells
    • functions in diffusion, osmosis, filtration, secretion, absorption
  14. Stratified epithelium 
    • Several layers of cells
    • protect underlying tissues in locations where there is considerable wear and tear
  15. Pseudostratified epithelium
    single layer that appears stratified (because nuclei lay @ different layers)
  16. Transitional epithelium 
    cells that undergo changes in shape and therefore is located in areas subject to stretching (urinary bladder)
  17. Squamous cells
    • Flattened 
    • Thin like floor tiles (rapid passage of substances)
  18. Cuboidal cells
    • cube-shaped
    • microvilli @ their apical surface and function in sercretion or absorption
  19. Columnar cells
    • tall and cylindrical or rectangular
    • Protect underlying cells
  20. Transitional cells
    able to undergo changes in shape caused by distentsion
  21. Endocrine glands
    • ductless (thyroid, adrenal)
    • secrete horomones which diffuse through the extracellular fluid into the blood
  22. exocrine glands
    • Secrete substances into ducts or onto the surface of the body
    • structually classified into unicellular and multicellular glands
    • Sweat/salivary
  23. Unicellular glands
    • Goblet cell
    • secrete their products into body tubes such as the respiratory tract (secrete mucus directly on apical surface)
  24. multicellular glands
Card Set
Anatomy Chapter 3