
thermodynamics
how a hot body can perform work

classical thermo vs statistical
 classical  more direct, less math complications
 statistical  Laser, plasma, highspeed gas flowchem. kinetics, cryogenics derivation ideal gas spec. heat

system
whatever we want to study.

Surroundings
everything external to thesystem.

Boundary
distinguishes system from itssurroundings.

closed system
constant matter

Isolated system
special typeof closed system that doesnot interact in any way with itssurroundings.

Control Volume/open system
Mass may cross the boundry

Extensive Property
mass, volume, energy

Intensive property
temperature, pressure, spec. volume

State
Systems condition, described by it's properties

process
Change of state, Change of atleast one property

Cycle
Sequence of processes that begins and ends with same state

nonproperties
mass flow and energy transfer, because takes two states to know the change.

Steady state
Properties do not change with time.

equilibrium
isolated system when properties stop changing

Phase
Homogenous chemical and structural matter

Specific volume
1/p = kg/m^3


pressure unit
1pa = 1N/m^{2}

bar conversion
1bar = 10^5N/m^{2}

Absolute pressure
P = Pguage + Patm

Vacume pressure
Pvac = Patm  P

Kelvin celsius ralationship
T(C) = T(K)  273

First law of thermo
 Energy is conserved
 ΔE = ΔPE+ΔKE+ΔU
 ΔE = Q  W

Work sign standard
 Into system is neg
 out of system is pos

Heat sign standard
 Heat out is neg
 Heat in is pos

Work Equation
W = ∫ pdV = ∫Fdx = ∫ pAdx

polytropic process
pV^{n} = constant

Heat transfer types
 Convection  through a medium
 Radiation  energy waves
 Conduction  direct touching transfer

Rerfrigeration cycle
 provide cooling
 Wcycle = Q_{out}Q_{in}
 B=Q_{in}/W_{cycle = Qin/(QoutQin)}

Power cycle
 Wcycle =Qin  Qout
 n = Wcycle/Qin = (QinQout)/Qin

Heat Pump Cycle
 Wcycle = Qout  Qin
 y = Qout/Wcycle = Qout/(Qout  Qin)

Vapor Dome
Dome shaped region of the Twophase liquidvapor states

Critical Point
 the Max of the vapor dome
 Max temp and pressure the two phase can coexist

Quality
X = m_{vapor}/(m_{vapor}+m_{liquid})

Enthalpy(h)
h = u_{specific} + pv_{specific
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