1. Pheochromocytoma
    Most common adrenal medulla tumor in adults. Episodic HTN.
  2. Neuroblastoma
    Most common adrenal medulla tumor in kids. No episodic HTN.
  3. Adrenal medulla, adrenal cortex (neurohypophysis), & adrenal cortex (adenohypophysis) are derived from:
    Neural crest cells, neuroectoderm, & oral ectoderm
  4. GLUT-1 transporter
    Take up glucose independent of insulin levels (brain & RBC's)
  5. GLUT-4 transporter
    Skeletal muscle & adipose tissue; take up large amounts of glucose only when insulin is high enough.
  6. Relationship between prolactin & dopamine
    Dopamine inhibits prolactin, while prolactin stimulates dopamine synthesis & release.
  7. Somatostatin inhibits...
    GH, TSH
  8. Site of action of ketoconazole (-) & ACTH (+)
    Desmolase enzyme, for cholesterol --> pregnenolone
  9. Alpha-hydroxylase enzymes used to make: 1) aldosterone, 2) cortisol, 3) androgens
    • 1) 21 & 11
    • 2) 17, 21, 11
    • 3) 17
  10. Regulation of PTH release
    • + dec'd serum Ca++
    • - dec'd serum Mg++ (diarrhea, diuretics, alcohol abuse, aminoglycosides)
  11. Cushing's syndrome
    High cortisol. Iatrogenic (take steroids), pituitary adenoma (=Cushing's disease, high ACTH), ACTH-secreting tumor (small-cell lung cancer), adrenal hyperplasia or neoplasia.
  12. Conn's syndrome
    Primary hyperaldosteronism (tumor). Hypokalemia, metabolic alkalosis, HTN, low renin.
  13. Secondary hyperaldosteronism
    Conditions that stimulate you to raise BP: Renal failure, renal A stenosis, CHF, cirrhosis, nephrotic syndrome.
  14. Addison's disease
    Low aldosterone & cortisol, because adrenal destruction/atrophy. High ACTH, which means hyperpigmentation (a byproduct of ATCH production, MSH, stimulates melanocytes).
  15. Waterhouse-Friderichsen syndrome
    N.meningitides sepsis --> adrenal hemorrhage --> adrenal cortex insufficiency.
  16. Sheehan's syndrome
    • Postpartum hypopituitarism.
    • During pregnancy, anterior pituitary enlarges but blood supply doesn't... then, during delivery, severe bleeding --> infarction of pituitary. Poor lactation, loss of pubic & axillary hair, fatigue, anorexia.
  17. Gottron's papules
    Assoc with dermatomyositis. Rash over MCP & IP joints.
  18. Bouchard's nodes
    Assoc with OA in PIP joints
  19. Heberden's nodes
    Assoc w/OA in DIP joints
  20. Baker's cyst
    In RA patients, located behind knee
  21. Tophus
    Accumulation of uric acid crystals in chronic gout. Often external ear or Achilles tendon.
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