BIO 1 final

  1. mendel
    genes are heritable factors passed from generation to generation
  2. Hunt Morgan
    Sex Linked 3:1 ratios; Genes located on chromosomes
  3. Griffith
  4. Avery, Mccarty, macleod
    Transforming agent was DNA
  5. Hershey and Chase
    DNA (not protein) was the agent providing the genetic information
  6. Chargaff
    A to T/U C to G
  7. Meselson and Stahl
    Semiconservative model of DNA replication
  8. New DNA synthesized from
    5 to 3 only adds to 3 end
  9. DNA polymerase I
    removes primer and puts DNA in its place
  10. An enzyme called ????? catalyzes the lengthening of telomers in germ cells
  11. Loosely packed chromatin is called
  12. densely packed chromatin (centromeres and telomeres) is called
  13. X and Y have how many genes each?
    78 and 2000
  14. The choromosome theory of inheritance states:
    • Mendelian gnes have specific loci (positions) on chromosomes
    • Chromosomes undergo segragation AND independent assortment
  15. Traits alternative to the wild type are called
    mutant phenotypes
  16. What gene codes for the testes?
    SRY gene
  17. How does linkage affect inheritance?
    creates diversity (genes on same chromosome accodign to morgans fruit fly experiment)
  18. Disorders caused by recessive alleles on the X chromosome in humans are
    • Color blindness
    • Duchenne muscular dystrophy
    • hemophilia
  19. Inactive X condenses into a
    barr body
  20. Nondisjunction(chromosomes don't separate), Anueploidy results, and trisomic zygote has three copies of chromosome 21 results in what disease
    down syndrome
  21. anueploidy conditoins
    • Klinefelters syndrome XXY
    • Monosomy X or XO (turners syndrome)
  22. deletion of choromosome 5 is what disease
    cri du chat
  23. CML chronic myelogenous leukemia is caused by what
    translocations of chromosomes
  24. two exceptions to mendilian genetics
    genes located in the nucleus AND genes located outside the nucleus (extranuclear genes or cytoplasmic genes inherited maternally because the zygotes cytoplasm comes from the oocyte

    example mitchondrial myopathy AND lebers heridtary optic neuropathy
  25. Missense mutations
    still code for an amino acid, but not necessarily the right amino acid
  26. nonsense mutations
    • change an amino acid codon into a stop codon nearly alwasy leading to a nonfunctional protein
    • frameshift mutation (insertion or deletion of nucleotides)
  27. Beadle AND Tatum
    one gene one enszyme hypothesis later revised to polypeptide
  28. codons are read in what direction
Card Set
BIO 1 final