- the process of receving information about and making sense of the world around us
- everyone's perception is different b/c we decide which info to notice, how to categorize this iinfo and hot to interpret information wihtin our existing knowledge framework
what is selective attention?
- filtering information through senses influences:
- -objects characteristics (size, intensity, motion and repetition)
- -perceiver characteristics (automated emotional marker process, expectations, self concept and beliefs, you perceive the same thing everytime)
- -confirmation bias (screen out information contrary to our beliefs/values, support self concept)
what are the perceptual organization/interpretation?
- categorical thinking: mostly nonconscious process of organizing people/things
- perceptual grouping principles: similarity or proximity, closure (filling in missing pieces), perceiving trends
- interpreting incoming information: emotional markers automatically evaluate information
what are mental models in perceptions
- broad world-views or "theories in use"
- help us to quickly make sense of situations (fill in missing pieces, help to predict events)
- problem with mental models: may block recognition of new opportunities/perspectives
What are three social identity processes
- categorization process: compare characteristics of our groups with other groups
- homogenization: similar traits within a group; different traits across groups
- differentiation: develop less favorable images of people in groups other than our own
what is stereotype
assigning traits to people based on their membership in a social category
why does stereotype occur?
- categorical thinking
- innate drive to understand and antcipate others' behavior
- enhances self-concept
what are stereotyping issues? and how do you over them?
- overgeneralization (doesn't represent everyone in the category)
- basis of systemic and intentional discrimination
- it is difficult to prevent stereotype activation, but possible to minimize stereotype application
what are perpectual errors?
- halo effect: one trait forms a general impression (late for work, everything they do is bad)
- primacy effect: first impressions
- recency effect: most recent information dominates perceptions
- false consensus effect: overestimate the extent to which others have beliefs and characteristics similar to our own
what are strategies to improve perceptions
- awareness of perceptual biases
- improving self-awareness
- meaningful interaction: close, frequent interaction toward a shared goal, equal status, engaged in meaningful task
a relatively permanent change in behavior (or behavior tendency) that occurs as a result of a person's interaction with the environment
what is the difference between explicit and tacit knowledge?
- explicit knowledge: knowledge that is articulated through language, such as documents
- tacit knowledge: knowledge acquired through observation and direct experience
what is behavior modification?
- we operate on the environment
- -alter behavior to maximize positive and minimize adverse consequences
- takes on the extreme view that learning is viewed as completely dependt on the environment
what are the ABC's of behavior?
- antecedents: what happens before behavior (warning light flashes)
- behavior: what person says or does (machine operator turns off power)
- consequence: what happens after behavior (co-workers thank operator)
what is the social learning theory?
- behavioral modeling: observing and modeling behavior of others
- learning behavior consequences: observing consequences that others experience
- self-reinforcement: reinforcing our own behavior with consequences within our control
how do we learn thorugh experience?
- most tacit knowledge and skills are acquired through experience and observation
- experiential learning steps (engagement with environment, reflecting on experience, experimenting, our reflection in class allow one to think beyond the obvious)
how to develop a learning orientation?
- value the generation of new knowledge
- reward experimentation
- recognize mistakes as part of learning
- encourage employees to take reasonable risks
how does organizational learning contribute to organizational effectiveness?
- knowledge acquisition: extracting information and ideas from the external environment as well as through insight
- knowledge sharing: distributing knowledge to tohers across the organization
- knowledge use: applying knowledge in ways that adds value to the organization and its stakeholders