1. define perception
    • the process of receving information about and making sense of the world around us
    • everyone's perception is different b/c we decide which info to notice, how to categorize this iinfo and hot to interpret information wihtin our existing knowledge framework
  2. what is selective attention?
    • filtering information through senses influences:
    • -objects characteristics (size, intensity, motion and repetition)
    • -perceiver characteristics (automated emotional marker process, expectations, self concept and beliefs, you perceive the same thing everytime)
    • -confirmation bias (screen out information contrary to our beliefs/values, support self concept)
  3. what are the perceptual organization/interpretation?
    • categorical thinking: mostly nonconscious process of organizing people/things
    • perceptual grouping principles: similarity or proximity, closure (filling in missing pieces), perceiving trends
    • interpreting incoming information: emotional markers automatically evaluate information
  4. what are mental models in perceptions
    • broad world-views or "theories in use"
    • help us to quickly make sense of situations (fill in missing pieces, help to predict events)
    • problem with mental models: may block recognition of new opportunities/perspectives
  5. What are three social identity processes
    • categorization process: compare characteristics of our groups with other groups
    • homogenization: similar traits within a group; different traits across groups
    • differentiation: develop less favorable images of people in groups other than our own
  6. what is stereotype
    assigning traits to people based on their membership in a social category
  7. why does stereotype occur?
    • categorical thinking
    • innate drive to understand and antcipate others' behavior
    • enhances self-concept
  8. what are stereotyping issues? and how do you over them?
    • overgeneralization (doesn't represent everyone in the category)
    • basis of systemic and intentional discrimination
    • it is difficult to prevent stereotype activation, but possible to minimize stereotype application
  9. what are perpectual errors?
    • halo effect: one trait forms a general impression (late for work, everything they do is bad)
    • primacy effect: first impressions
    • recency effect: most recent information dominates perceptions
    • false consensus effect: overestimate the extent to which others have beliefs and characteristics similar to our own
  10. what are strategies to improve perceptions
    • awareness of perceptual biases
    • improving self-awareness
    • meaningful interaction: close, frequent interaction toward a shared goal, equal status, engaged in meaningful task
  11. define learning
    a relatively permanent change in behavior (or behavior tendency) that occurs as a result of a person's interaction with the environment
  12. what is the difference between explicit and tacit knowledge?
    • explicit knowledge: knowledge that is articulated through language, such as documents
    • tacit knowledge: knowledge acquired through observation and direct experience
  13. what is behavior modification?
    • we operate on the environment
    • -alter behavior to maximize positive and minimize adverse consequences
    • takes on the extreme view that learning is viewed as completely dependt on the environment
  14. what are the ABC's of behavior?
    • antecedents: what happens before behavior (warning light flashes)
    • behavior: what person says or does (machine operator turns off power)
    • consequence: what happens after behavior (co-workers thank operator)
  15. what is the social learning theory?
    • behavioral modeling: observing and modeling behavior of others
    • learning behavior consequences: observing consequences that others experience
    • self-reinforcement: reinforcing our own behavior with consequences within our control
  16. how do we learn thorugh experience?
    • most tacit knowledge and skills are acquired through experience and observation
    • experiential learning steps (engagement with environment, reflecting on experience, experimenting, our reflection in class allow one to think beyond the obvious)
  17. how to develop a learning orientation?
    • value the generation of new knowledge
    • reward experimentation
    • recognize mistakes as part of learning
    • encourage employees to take reasonable risks
  18. how does organizational learning contribute to organizational effectiveness?
    • knowledge acquisition: extracting information and ideas from the external environment as well as through insight
    • knowledge sharing: distributing knowledge to tohers across the organization
    • knowledge use: applying knowledge in ways that adds value to the organization and its stakeholders
Card Set
OB chp3