Ch. 59

  1. What is a specie? (organism)
    All members of all populations of one "type" of organism.
  2. What is a population?
    All members of one specie living together and interbreeding.
  3. What is an ecosystem?
    All population (biotic) plus all abiotic factors.
  4. What is abiotic factor?
    • A¬†nonliving condition or thing
    • example: climate or habitat, that influences or affects an ecosystem.
  5. What is a biotic factor?
    A living thing, as an animal or plant, that influences or affects an ecosystem.
  6. What is a biome?
    • The largest ecosystem defined by large geographical areas and distinguished by rainfall and temperature.
    • example: Tundra, dessert, tropical rainforest
  7. What is a biosphere?
    The areas of the earth that contains life.
  8. What is ecology?
    Study of ecosystems.
  9. What is biomass?
    Mass of the living organism.

    bio=life mass=amt of matter
  10. What is an autotroph?
    "self feeders" either photosynthetic or chemosynthetic.
  11. What is a heterotroph?
    "other feeders" gets energy from other organisms.
  12. What is a primary producer?
    Photosynthetic organisms building biomass using sunlight.
  13. What are primary consumers (herbivores)?
    • Organisms that obtain their food by consuming primary producers.
    • example: most protist, all animals and mistletoe (plant eat other plants)
  14. What are secondary consumers? (primary carnivores)
    Organisms that eat primary consumers.
  15. What are tertiary consumers? (secondary carnivores)
    Organisms that eat secondary consumers.
  16. What are top predators or apex predadors?
    • An animal who, as an adult, has no natural predators in its ecosystem.
    • example: great white shark
  17. What is detritus?
    Material from decomposed, unconsumed plants and dead remains of animals and waste products.
  18. What are detritivores?
    Consumers that get their energy from detritus.
  19. What are decomposers?
    Detritivores that break down dead organisms from all trophic levels.
  20. What is a food chain?
    A linear depiction of energy flow, with each organism feeding on and deriving energy from the preceding organism.
  21. What is a food web?
    A system of food chains in which there are multiple links between species.
  22. What is a trophic level?
    Each feeding level in the food chain.
  23. Trophic levels
    • Tertiary consumer
    • (secondary carnivore)

    • Secondary consumer
    • (carnivore)

    • Primary consumer
    • (herbivore)

    • Primary producer
    • (autotrophs)
  24. What is a phytophankton?
    Plant like plankton. Photosynthetic protests in plankton.
  25. What is plankton?
    Informal group of organims that includes swimming protists, bacteria, viruses, and small animals.
  26. What are zooplankton?
    Aquatic organisms such as worms, copepods, tiny jellyfish, and small larvae of invertebrates and fishes.
  27. What is Gross Primary Productivity (GPP)?
    Production of photoshynthetic organisms. It's equivalent to the carbon fixed during photosynthesis.
  28. What is Net Primary Productivity (NPP)?
    It is gross primary production minus the energy released during cellular respiration of photosynthetic organisms.
  29. What is Secondary Productivity?
    The gain in the biomass of heterothophs and decomposers.
  30. Pyramid of Numbers
    The number of individuals decreases at each trophic level.

    example: oak tree, caterpillar
  31. Pyramid of Numbers
    The number of individuals decreases at each trophic level.

    For example: in glassland, there may be hundred of plants /sm, dozens of inseccts that feed on the plants, a few spiders feeding on the insects, and birds that feed on the spiders.
  32. Inverted Pyramid of Numbers
    One single producer such as an oak tree can support hundreds of herbivorous beetles, caterpillars, and other primary consumers, which in turn, may support thousands of predators.
  33. Pyramid of Biomass
    • Weighing the organisms in each trophic level.
    • example: an oak tree weighs more than all its herbivores and predators combined. Shows an upright pyramid.
  34. What is standing crop?
    The totall biomass in an ecosystem at any one point in time.
  35. Inverted Pyramid of Biomass
    Example: in some marine and lake systems, the biomass of phytoplankton supports a higher biomass of zooplankton. This is possible because the rate of production of phytoplankton biomass is much higher than that of zooplankton and the small phytoplankton processes large amounts of energy.
  36. Pyramid of Energy
    • Shows the rate of energy production rather than standing crop.
    • It is NEVER inverted.
    • Example: howard Odum's energy pyramid for Silver Springs also shows that large amounts of energy pass through decomposers, despite their relatively small biomass.

    The higest amounts of free energy are found at the lowest trophic levels.
  37. 1st and 2nd Laws of thermodynamics
    1) Energy can not be created nor destroyed

    2) During energy transformation much of the useful energy is lost to the system.
  38. 10% Rule
    Only 10% of the energy in any trophic level passes into the next level.
  39. What is Biomagnification?
    The tendency of certain chemicals to concentrate in higher tropic levels in food chains.

    example: in a Lake Michigan food chain, the highest concentration of DDT was found in gulls, tertiary consumers that feed on fishes that, in turn, eat small insects. The biomagnification of DDT in lipids causes its concentration to increase at each  successive link in the food chain.
  40. What is Bioaccumulation?
    Refers to the accumulation of substances such as pesticides, or other organic chemicals in an organism.

    Example: accumulation of DDT in Lake Michigan food chains.
Card Set
Ch. 59
Test 2