1. What are the 3 major regions of the integument ?
    • Epidermis- outermost superficial region
    • Dermis- middle region
    • Hypodermis- deepest region
  2. Name the cells found in the epidermis.
    • Stem cells
    • Keratinocytes
    • melanocytes
    • merkel cells
    • dendritic(Langerhans) cells
  3. What are stem cells?
    Undifferentiated cells that undergo mitosis and become keratinocytes- found in stratum basale.
  4. What are Keratinocytes?
    produce the fibrous protein keratin
  5. What are Melanocytes?
    Produce brown pigment melanin- in stratum basale.
  6. Merkel cells function as ______ receptors in association with ______ nerve endings- in stratum basale.
    touch, sensory
  7. Langerhans cells are epidermal _________ that help activate the immune system. Found in stratum _______ and _______.
    macrophages, spinosum, granulosum.
  8. The epidermis is composed of which epithelial cells? 
    keratinized stratified squamous epithelium.
  9. The epidermis has ___ distinct cell types and four or five _____.
    5, layers
  10. List the layers of the epidermis starting with the deepest.
    • Stratum corneum
    • Stratum lucidum
    • Stratum granulosum
    • Stratum spinosum
    • Stratum basale
    • (Every- epidermis)Cute lady gets sexy boys
  11. The ________ muscle causes goosebumps.
  12. (possible) Essay

    Name 5 of the 6 functions of the skin.
    • Resistance to trauma and infection-filled keratin-linked by desmosomes- pH of 6
    • Barrier Functions-prevents water loss, barrier against UV, protects against chemicals, fat soluble permeable.
    • Vitamin D synthesis- in dermal blood vessels (cholecalciferol)
    • Sensation - cutaneous exoreceptors sense touch and pain
    • Thermoregulation- regulate dilation (cooling) constricting (warming) of dermal vessels. Increase sweat gland secretions.
    • Social Functions- nonverbal communication, general appearance.
  13. Name the 3 variations of skin color and causes.
    • Melanin- Eumelanin - brownish-black
    •                 pheomelanin- reddish-yellow
    •          Freckles and pigmented moles- localized accumulation of melanin
    • Hemoglobin reddish pigment of blood - pinkish hue of the skin.
    • Carotene- yellow or orange pigment palms or soles of feet.
  14. The second major skin region containing strong, flexible connective tissue is the ______.
  15. The dermis cells include:
    • fibroblasts
    • macrophages
    • mast cells
    • white blood cells
  16. The dermis has 2 layers the ______ layer and the _______ layer.
    papillary, reticular
  17. The ________ layer of the dermis is areolar connective tissue with collagen and elastic fibers.
  18. The papillary layers superior surface contains peglike projections called _____ ________.
    dermal papillae
  19. The _____ layer contains capillary loops, Meissner's corpuscles, and free nerve endings.
  20. The _____ layer of the dermis accounts for 80% of the thickness of the skin.
  21. True or false
    Reticular layer contains collagen fibers that add strength and resiliency to the skin.
  22. In the reticullar tissue, _____ fibers provide stretch-recoil properties.
  23. Tearing in what fibers cause striae (stretch marks) commonly from weight gain?
  24. The deepest layer of dermis is the?
  25. True or false
    The  epidermis is a subcutaneous layer.
    false (hypodermis)
  26. _______ is a subcutaneous layer, or superficial fascia deep to the skin.
  27. The hypodermis is composed of _______ and ________ _______ tissue.
    adipose, areolar connective 
  28. ______blueness of skin- oxygen deficiency and cold extremities. (Essay)
  29. ______ is abnormal redness of the skin: exercise, hot weather, sunburn, anger, and embarrassment. (ESSAY)
  30. ______ is pale skin color: emotional stress, low bp, circulatory shock, cold temperatures, or severe anemia. (ESSAY)
  31. __________ is a genetic lack of melanin results in white hair, pale skin, and pink eyes. (ESSAY)
  32. ______ is yellowing of the skin and whites of the eyes resulting from high levels of bilirubin in the blood. liver function- cancer, hepatitis, cirrhosis. (ESSAY)
  33. Melanin is produced from tyrosine by tyrosinase.
  34. _______ is from Addison's disease, from adrenal cortex hormone deficit. (ESSAY)
  35. What is another name for a bruise? (ESSAY)
  36. Hair or pilus is filamentous strands of dead ________ cells produced by hair ________.
    keratinized, follicles
  37. Hair keratin is softer or tougher than that of the skin?
  38. _______ are made of clear, hard derivatives of stratum corneum.
  39. Nails grow about 2 mm/week.
    false, 1 mm/week
  40. Hair is made up of the ____ projecting form the skin, and the _____ embedded in the skin.
    shaft, root
  41. What are the 3 components of the shaft?
    • medulla- core
    • cortex
    • cuticle
  42. Pigmentation by  _______ at the base of the hair.
  43. The root sheath extends from the epidermal surface into the dermis.
  44. Deep end is expanded forming a hair ____.
  45. What is the knot of sensory nerve endings wrapped around each hair bulb?
    root hair plexus
  46. Bending a hair stimulates the hair bulb  acting as sensitive touch receptors.
    false, it is the sensory nerve endings (root hair plexus)
  47. Coarse, long hair of eyebrows, axillary, and pubic regions are considered:
  48. Indeterminate hair is found on the arms and legs.
    false, determinate
  49. Which is the least malignant and most common type of skin cancer that is slow growing and does not often metastasize?
    squamous cell carcinoma
    basal cell carcinoma
    basal cell carcinoma, surgically excision 99% effective
  50. In basal cell carcinoma the stratum basale cells proliferate and invade the dermis and the _____.
  51. Squamous cell carcinoma occurs most often on the scalp, ears, and lower lip.
  52. Squamous cell carcinoma arrises from ______  of the stratum spinosum grows rapidly and metastasizes if not removed.
  53. (ESSAY) Name the 7 diagnostic skin colors.
    • Cyanosis- blueness- oxygen deficiency and cold
    • Hematoma- bruise
    • Erythema- redneess- exercis, sunburn, anger, embarrassment
    • Albinism- lack melanin- white hair, pale skin, pink eyes
    • Pallor- pale- emotional stress, low bp, shock, cold temp,             severe anemia
    • Bronzing- addison's disease,adrenal cortex hormone deficit
    • Jaundice- yellowing skin and eyes
  54. What is Hirsutism?
    Excessive hair usually associated with women and children.
  55. ABCD rule for recognizing malignant melanoma.
    • Asymmetry
    • Border
    • Color
    • Diameter
  56. Describe 1st degree burns.
    epidermis damage
  57. Describe 2nd degree burns.
    epidermis and upper regions of dermis damage, blisters.
  58. Describe 3rd degree burns.
    Entire thickness of skin damage, burned area (eschar) appears gray-white, cherry red, or black, no initial edema or pain (nerve endings destroyed)
  59. Describe 4th degree burns.
    same as 3rd, including muscle burn, disfigurement.
  60. Leading cause of death associated with burns?
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