Hist Final Part 9

  1. Mikhail Gorbachev
    • - Was looking towards the west and a better relationship. Knowing they depended on these countries for assistance.
    • - His influence in central America was marginal, Nicaragua did essentially what they wanted to do.
  2. Soviets at UN
    Were present at UN during 1990. They did not veto what George Bush wanted.
  3. During 1980's
    • Iran and Iraq fought a long war. Iraq used chemical weapons. 1988, saddam Hussein used chemical weapons against the Kurds who were not that supportive of Saddam Hussein. War ended eventually 1988. Iraq was basically bankrupt. So Iraq wanted to increase the price of oil, but other OPEC countries did not agree. Iraq decided to increase oil revenue by taking
    • over oil fields in Kuwait. He claimed that some Kuwaiti oil fields were actually Iraqi oil fields
  4. Iraqi aggression against Kuwait
    • August 2, 1990 - This evoked alarm in the west. Bush responded in a wimpy way according to Margaret Thatcher. After talking, Bush began to respond in a much stronger way, then he took a hard line. He said Saudi Arabia was now
    • threatened, if Saudi Arabia was taken over, then there would be a huge crisis. Bush changed US policy towards Iraq 180 degrees.
  5. Up to this point, from Iranian revolution of 1979 through the 1980’s Iran-Iraq war and into the 1990’s
    • - US took a very strong pro Saddam and pro Iraq position. Real threat was Iran.
    • - US provided chemicals and intelligence in the Iran-Iraq war.
  6. Shortly before Iraq’s invasion of Kuwait,
    Hussein met with April Lastly (US ambassador) and raised issue of Kuwait. April responded US did not have any position on this conflict. Hussein probably read into this that the US would not respond, then all of a sudden it became unacceptable. Bush blamed the American ambassador. Joseph Wilson was the number 2 person in the American embassy in Iraq.
  7. The wife of Joseph Wilson was Valery Plane
    • Valery Wilson was her name, but the Bush administration called her her maiden name Valery Plane. Bush often gave
    • nicknames to people. Valarie plane was outed by the Bush administration because Joseph Wilson had been in a mission to Niger in Africa because of the allegation that Niger was providing material that could be used to make nuclear
    • weapons. Wilson went to Niger and came back reported in 2002 that no there was no truth to the allegation. This isn’t what Geroge W. Bush wanted, so Joseph Wilson lied. When Wilson went public, Bush administration retaliated by outing
    • his wife. She was undercover CIA, she was to operate a global network of anti-terrorist spies. If it was terrorism, why would they out the person who was working with the networks to find out terrorists. All of her assets were probably killed around the world.
  8. Sec of Defense Dick Cheney and the UN,
    Said we should protect Saudi Arabia from Saddam Hussein.
  9. American troops were now
    - stationed in Saudi Arabia. Osama Bin Ladin saw this as the moral degradation of Saudi Arabia. Bush began to defend Saudi Arabia. Operation Desert Shield. By January 500,000 American military forces were present.
  10. Bush and congress for Iraq war
    At first he wasn't going to, but eventually asked congress to pass a resolution to authorize use of combat forces on Jan 12, 1991
  11. Persian Gulf war
    • Jan 17, 1991: against Iraq to liberate Kuwait. Heavy bombardment of Baghdad. Started as mostly an Aerial attack. They showed many videos showed 'smart bombs' but there were much more civilian casualties than first thought. After several weeks, Feb 24, opened the land war.
    • - US circled Kuwait. They came from the back of Kuwait, Iraqis began to flee, disbanded. Large numbers were killed or captured. This strategy ended the war, Feb 28th, President Bush announced ending of Persian Gulf war. Hussein agreed to ceasefire. By this time only 148 lives lost, and possibly 100,000 Iraqi deaths.
    • - At end of the war, Bush made the goal to stop once Kuwait had been liberated. UN did not approve changing the regime in
    • Baghdad, nor did he want to, because then you are responsible with what is happening in Iraq. Bush decided it would be unwise to do this. Sec of defense Dick Cheney argued it would be too costly.
  12. Bush knew members of UN
    especially Arab nations had no reason for US to topple Saddam Hussein.
  13. Bush sold the policy of going into liberate Kuwait
    as a way of helping the UN do what the founders said UN should do. Original Idea of national self determination, affirmed both democracy and preservation of national sovergnty. Bush lifted national sovernty but he did not talk about spreading or protecting democracy. This is because Kuwait had a King, was not a democratic country. Issue of oil was also important for American economy. This was very popular. 1991, Bush's approval rating was 91% . He created what he called a new world order.
  14. By 1992, Americans wanted
    Economic benefits too, so they took Bill Clinton.
  15. Difference between Clinton and
    Clinton would call for democracy more than Bush would. Clinton said no national security issue is more urgent than securing democracy.
  16. Correlation between democracy and peace
    Saddam Hussein was a dictator so he attacked Kuwait.
  17. New administration lifted up
    • - Globalization
    • - Emphasized collective security.
  18. Clintons national security advisor was
    Anthony Lake: Can't have capitalism without democracy. Chinese situation proved otherwise but he assumed Clinton, Lake, and others that the two go hand in hand. Lake wanted to work to end every conflict, but simply can't. Americans saw themselves as having super power, yet there were limits. Also there were limits what American people will tolerate. If we have won the cold war by spending massive amounts of money, and won the Kuwait, then we want economic reward. Clinton offered economy as the top priority.
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Hist Final Part 9