Jazz History 1

  1. Rhythm Section
    • Bass (Tuba)
    • Piano
    • Guitar (Banjo)
    • Drums
  2. Bass
    • This is one of the time keepers
    • Creates rhythmic drive
    • "Walks" during swing with emphasis on beats 2 and 4
  3. Piano
    • Provides harmonic framework by playing chords
    • Improvises rhythms and chord voicings
    • Provides creative accompaniment for soloists
  4. Guitar
    Same function as piano
  5. Drums
    • Establishes the beat along with the bass by using the ride cymbal heavily
    • In swing, the hi-hat is closed on beats 2 and 4
  6. AABA form
    • Each section labeled with capital letter
    • Each section is usually 8 bars
    • Jazz musicians use this form to keep track of where they are when they are playing
  7. Blues form
    • AAB form
    • Each section is 4 bars
    • The form is 12 bars
  8. Chorus
    • One complete revolution or cycle through a piece of music.
    • Songs are usually performed with more than one time through the form (chorus).
  9. Syncopation
    Intermittent events (notes) that happen between beats and/or sounds, which are stressed in unexpected ways.
  10. Rhythm
    • Events organized in time
    • This encompasses beats, tempo, meter, and various time values assigned to events
  11. Instrumentation
    The instruments used in a piece of music
  12. Melody
    • Sequence of single notes arranged in time
    • Usually the primary part in a song
  13. Harmony
    An arrangement of two or more notes that occur simultaneously.
  14. Stop time solo break
    The band stops playing and a player has a short solo
  15. Pitch Inflection
    • Bending the pitch
    • Black singers would bend (lower) the seventh and third scale degrees and the naturally occuring half steps are eliminated.
    • These notes are known as blue notes.
  16. Tonal manipulation
    Techniques used for thickening the tone of an instrument
  17. Cross rhythms
    • These are central to African rhythm
    • In simple terms, it is the superimposition of duple over triple rhythms.
    • The central rhythm is usually established by the lead drummer
  18. Call and Response
    It was customary for the leader or minister to perform in a call-and-response manner, with the congregation giving the responses in spoken prayer and music.
  19. Minstrel shows
    • Popular form of entertainment starting in the 1840s
    • Started out with white people performing in blackface
    • Eventually included black people performing in blackface
  20. Work Songs
    • This was the majority of black music
    • These songs were based on the type of work being done
  21. William Christopher (W.C.) Handy
    • The Father of the Blues
    • Listened to songs of birds and riverboat whistles
    • First composition- "Memphis Blues"
    • Most popular composition- "St. Louis Blues"
    • Wasn't the first blues musician, but he was the first to write it down
  22. Spirituals
    • Many of these are based on biblical passages
    • Used call-and-response technique
  23. Ragtime
    • Started with piano players' efforts to improvise versions of brass band marches in the absence of an actuall brass band.
    • Players began to syncopate march melodies.
  24. Ragtime Characteristics
    • Left hand goes back and forth, alternating bass notes or octaves
    • Right hand plays melodies syncopated against the regular left hand rhythm
  25. Early New Orleans Jazz
    • Instrumentation grew out of the brass band tradition
    • Consisted of front line (cornet, clarinet, and trombone) and rhythm section (tuba/bass, drums, cymbals, piano, and banjo/guitar)
    • Built around "hot" bands playing interpretations of marches, rags, polkas, blues, quadrilles, and popular tunes
    • Featured collective improvisation, with several players improvising at once
  26. Buddy Bolden
    • Given credit as first "jazz" musician
    • Remembered by New Orleans musicians as one of the best cornet players from 1895 to 1906
  27. Joe "King" Oliver
    • One of most popular and best-known New Orleans cornetists
    • Mentor for Louis Armstrong
    • Excelled at collective improv, master of tonal manipulation
    • His Creole Jazz Band was one of most popular bands in Chicago (finest musicians from New Orleans)
  28. Freddie Keppard
    • One of the top cornet players in New Orleans
    • Declined invitation to record ahead of the Original Dixieland Jazz Band because he didn't want to "give away his tricks"
  29. Sidney Bechet
    • Played clarinet and soprano sax
    • One of most highly regarded musicians in early jazz and one of first important soloists
    • Big sound with wide vibrato
  30. Jelly Roll Morton
    • Pianist, composer, and arranger
    • Given credit for being first jazz composer/arranger
    • Created more loose rhythmic feel and swung rhythm
    • His most famous band was the Red Hot Peppers
  31. Stride Piano Style
    • Rooted in ragtime style
    • Right hand uses improv, unlike ragtime
    • Swing eighth-note rhythmic feel
    • Existence of tenths or walking tenths in the left hand
  32. James P. Johnson
    • Important stride pianist
    • Taught Fats Waller and collaborated with him
    • Accompanied blues singers Bessie Smith, Ethel Waters, and Ida Cox
  33. Fats Waller
    • Famous Stride pianist
    • Protegé of James P. Johnson
    • Became famous as a singer, entertainer, and composer of popular songs ("Ain't Misbehavin'" and "Honeysuckle Rose")
  34. Earl Hines
    • His style of stride piano playing demonstrated the influences of the trumpet playing of Louis Armstrong.
    • Right hand single note improvisations that imitated trumpet melodies
    • Fast right hand octave tremolos to imitate Armstrong's fast vibrato
    • Forceful right hand octave melodies to imitate Armstrong's powerful sound
  35. Boogie-Woogie Piano (Honky-Tonk)
    • Has roots in blues style
    • Created exciting dance rhythms using repetitive, stationary left hand patterns instead of the stride style of piano
    • Improvised blues riffs in the right hand while left hand has stationary, repetitive pattern
  36. Meade Lux Lewis
    • Father of Boogie-Woogie
    • Recorded his famous "Honky Tonk Train Blues" in 1927
    • Appeared in movie New Orleans with Louis Armstrong
  37. Louis Armstrong
    • Father of Jazz (first jazz vocalist)
    • Joined King Oliver's group in Chicago as 2nd cornet
    • 1925-1928: his Hot 5/Hot 7 recordings
    • He was a virtuoso- double time, increased upper range, "hot" sound, fast vibrato, attractive sense of swing
    • SCAT vocals
    • Impacted all jazz players and singers
    • One soloist at a time
  38. Bix Beiderbecke
    • Cornet and piano player
    • Became one of first white jazz musicians to be widely admired by black jazz musicians
    • Influenced by impressionistic composers Ravel and Debussy
    • Unorthodox, self-taught system gave him unique sound
    • Played on the beat, differing from Louis Armstrong's behind the beat playing
  39. Frankie Trumbauer
    • Saxophonist
    • Worked with Beiderbecke
    • He was an important "hot" jazz soloist
  40. Differences between Early New Orleans style and Chicago style
    • Change in instrumentation: saxophone is introduced and eventually takes over clarinet, string bass appears and takes over tuba, trumpet replaces cornet, guitar replaces banjo, piano became standard
    • Collective improv replaced by one soloist at a time
    • More arrangements are used
  41. The Austin High Gang
    • Group of young white aspiring jazz players from Austin High School
    • Inspired by New Orleans Rhythm Kings, Bix Beiderbecke with the Wolverines, and King Oliver
  42. Early Big Band style
    • Consisted of larger ensemble (9-16 players) rather than combo
    • More arrangements used due to more instruments
    • Big Bands have a sax section (double on clarinet), a brass section, and a rhythm section
    • Drummers use more cymbals
    • One soloist at a time
  43. Fletcher Henderson
    • Born in Cuthbert, GA
    • Band leader, arranger, and pianist
    • Made name for himself in NY, played at Roseland Ballroom
    • His band featured Coleman Hawkins on sax and Louis Armstrong on trumpet
  44. Don Redman
    • Jazz musician, arranger, band leader, and composer
    • Played saxophone and clarinet with Fletcher Henderson's orchestra
    • Began writing arrangements and had a lot to do with formulating the sound that became Big Band Swing
  45. Coleman Hawkins
    • First tenor sax star
    • Developed into prolific improviser and saxophonist after 1924
    • Transferred Louis Armstrong's innovation to tenor sax
    • Played with Fletcher Henderson
  46. Duke Ellington
    • Given nickname because of impeccable manners and good taste
    • "Painter of sounds"
    • Composer, arranger, band leader, pianist
    • 1924-1927 his band played at the Kentucky Club
    • 1927-1931 his band played at the Cotton Club (his big break)
  47. Duke Ellington's key band members
    • Bubber Miley- trumpet growl specialist
    • Cootie Williams- trumpet growl specialist
    • "Tricky" Sam Nanton- trombone growl specialist
    • Johnny Hodges- alto sax
  48. Ellington styles
    • 1) Jungle: extensively uses muted brass sounds to capture exotic flavor of African culture
    • 2) Mood: intended to capture or depict a particular mood or setting
    • 3) Concerto: intended to feature talents of a specific band member
    • 4) Extended Works: intended to extend the length and scale of a work
    • 5) Dance: intended for dancing
  49. Kansas City style
    • Biggest influence is blues
    • These bands can also be called riff bands
    • Count Basie style
    • Had head arrangements (performing the arrangement from memory)
  50. Count Basie
    • Composer, arranger, band leader, pianist
    • Led a very successful band
    • New style of comping (began to jab chords intermittently between beats and used chords in the extreme upper register of the piano to penetrate the texture effectively)
  51. Count Basie's rhythm section
    • "the All American Rhythm Section"
    • Walter Page- bass
    • Jo Jones- drums
    • Freddie Green- guitar
    • Basie- piano
  52. Lester Young
    • Played tenor sax for Count Basie's band
    • Preeminent soloist in the band
    • One of the most significant tenor sax players of 1930s and 1940s
  53. Group Participation
    • One of the most important aspects in African music
    • Makes the audience a contributing member of the overall product
  54. Country (rural) Blues
    • Functional music
    • Usually one solitary performer
  55. City (urban) Blues
    Type of blues used as entertainment
Card Set
Jazz History 1
Jazz History Test 1