Medieval Art (part 3)

  1. Image Upload 1
    • Saint Étienne, Caen
    • Era: Romanesque, 1067
    • Location: France
    • Techniques:
    • Vikings - called Normans in France - started tradition of symbolism of holy trinity in architecture
    • Exterior
    •    - divided into 3 vertical registers that represent the holy trinity - seperated by 4 large butresses
    •    - 3 registers horizontally, 3 windows in grouping, 3 portals
    •    - tower windows get larger as they go up the tower - optical illusion to make the towers seem taller
    •   - 3 registers of windows in eeach tower
    • 3 ailse church
    • 2 aisle in one bay
    • alternating support system
    • sexpartite vaults - 6 part bay - rib in middle of groin - compresses the ceiling - walls go taller and can be closer
    • X of groin is also ribbed- compound piers - engaged half columns
    • reduction in wall mass due to more arches
    • clerestory windows
    • 3 part elevation with nave, tribune, and clerestory windows
    • columns separate clerestory windows
  2. Image Upload 2
    • Durham Cathedral
    • Era: Romanesque, 1093
    • Location: Durham, England
    • Techniques:
    • tall and slender proportions
    • sitting on a cliff
    • first building originally designed to have 7 part vaulted ceiling - squeezing ceiling
    • clear skeletal structure serves to lessen the density
    • bays are slightly larger than crossing - rectangular bays
    • Interior
    •    - multicolored stones
    •    - clustered columns to piers moving up into ceiling
    •    - patterned ribs and columns
    •    - abstract designs, diamonds, cable patterns or chevron patterns, originally painted design as well
    •    - alternating ornamented pillar and compound pier
    •    - between every large rib are two cross groins
    •    - ribs are slightly pointed
    •    - alternating support system
    • higher and taller than earlier ones
  3. Image Upload 3
    • Durham Cathedral
    • Era: Romanesque, 1093
    • Location: Durham, England
    • Techniques:
    • tall and slender proportions
    • sitting on a cliff
    • first building originally designed to have 7 part vaulted ceiling - squeezing ceiling
    • clear skeletal structure serves to lessen the density
    • bays are slightly larger than crossing - rectangular bays
    • Interior
    •    - multicolored stones
    •    - clustered columns to piers moving up into ceiling
    •    - patterned ribs and columns
    •    - abstract designs, diamonds, cable patterns or chevron patterns, originally painted design as well
    •    - alternating ornamented pillar and compound pier
    •    - between every large rib are two cross groins
    •    - ribs are slightly pointed
    •    - alternating support system
    • higher and taller than earlier ones
  4. Image Upload 4
    • Durham Cathedral
    • Era: Romanesque, 1093
    • Location: Durham, England
    • Techniques:
    • tall and slender proportions
    • sitting on a cliff
    • first building originally designed to have 7 part vaulted ceiling - squeezing ceiling
    • clear skeletal structure serves to lessen the density
    • bays are slightly larger than crossing - rectangular bays
    • Interior
    •    - multicolored stones
    •    - clustered columns to piers moving up into ceiling
    •    - patterned ribs and columns
    •    - abstract designs, diamonds, cable patterns or chevron patterns, originally painted design as well
    •    - alternating ornamented pillar and compound pier
    •    - between every large rib are two cross groins
    •    - ribs are slightly pointed
    •    - alternating support system
    • higher and taller than earlier ones
  5. Image Upload 5
    • Saint Sernin
    • Era: Romanesque, 1080-1120
    • Location: Toulousse, France
    • Techniques:
    • two towers never finished
    • Gothic floor plan that resembles the Latin cross
    • heavy block appearance of simple front facade
    • 5 aisle church, two on each side of nave
    • pilrgimage church - wider and longer for more pilgrims - most Romanesque churches were pilgrimage churches - increase length of nave and increase number of side aisle
    • focus on ambularoty and radiating chapels
    • 5 radiating chapels around ambulatory 4 more on transept
    • larger piers and thick walls
    • module system or square schematism model
    • bay is a section of nave - 2 bays is one crossing square
    • bay is a rectangle
    • tribune over inner aisles
    • aisles were overflow sections, obscure view of altar
    • each aisle has an X which denotes a groin vaulted ceiling
    • groin vaults in tribunes too - helps with pressure from giant nave - buttressing for the barrel vault of the nave
    • ribs in barrel vault of nave
    • engaged columns that lead from ribs to floor
    • heavy and dark structure - no clerestory windows
    • galleries had windows in outer aisle only
    • piers mark the corner of each bay - embellished with engaged half columns
    • each groin vault in aisle is seperated by a ribbed barrel vault
    • double lines indicate a rib on the plan
  6. Image Upload 6
    • Pisa Cathedral or Duomo Pisa
    • Era: Romanesque, 1053-1272
    • Location: Pisa, Italy
    • Techniques:
    • 3 entrances alludes to Holy Trinity
    • heavy thick walls
    • 5 aisle church
    • symbolize power of God and prosperity of Pisa
    • coffered wooden ceiling
    • transept with crossing tower
    • more interior wall decoration
    • two-toned stones in galleries
    • rounded arhces
  7. Image Upload 7
    • Pisa Cathedral or Duomo Pisa
    • Era: Romanesque, 1053-1272
    • Location: Pisa, Italy
    • Techniques:
    • 3 entrances alludes to Holy Trinity
    • heavy thick walls
    • 5 aisle church
    • symbolize power of God and prosperity of Pisa
    • coffered wooden ceiling
    • transept with crossing tower
    • more interior wall decoration
    • two-toned stones in galleries
    • rounded arhces
  8. Image Upload 8
    • Baptistery of San Giovanni
    • Era: Romanesque
    • Location: Florence, Italy
    • Techniques:
    • dedicated to St. John
    • reflects the significance of Florentines
    • entire community came to a baptism
    • domed octagon with elegant arcade
    • has bays each with 3 arches
    • multicolored marble creates more elegance and attempts to dematerialize the wallls
  9. Image Upload 9
    • San Miniato al Monte
    • Era: Romanesque, 1062
    • Location: Florence, Italy
    • Techniques:
    • exterior has 3 entrances
    • 2 colored stones
    • very geometric design
    • Interior
    •    - wooden ceiling
    •    - longitudinal supports with beams with multicolored designs
    •    - diaphragm arches, divide the nave into 3 equal compartments
    •    - thin walls
    •    - 1 compound pier, two simple columns
    •    - alternating support systems
    •    - Roman revival of compound capitals
  10. Image Upload 10
    • San Miniato al Monte
    • Era: Romanesque, 1062
    • Location: Florence, Italy
    • Techniques:
    • exterior has 3 entrances
    • 2 colored stones
    • very geometric design
    • Interior
    •    - wooden ceiling
    •    - longitudinal supports with beams with multicolored designs
    •    - diaphragm arches, divide the nave into 3 equal compartments
    •    - thin walls
    •    - 1 compound pier, two simple columns
    •    - alternating support systems
    •    - Roman revival of compound capitals
  11. Image Upload 11
    • Christ in Majesty, St. Sernin
    • Artist: Bernardus Gelduinus
    • Era: Romanesque, 1096
    • Location: Toulousse, France
    • Techniques
    • made of marble
    • ambulatory of St. Sernin
    • emulates the repousse technique - buldge in knee, buldging abdomen, and shoulder popping through
    • flattened space - tops of feet
    • stylized drapery
    • head is in high relief- nimbus behind head
    • 4 evangelists in symbolic form in the corners
    • highly polished marble, gloss that resemble metal work or ivory
    • mandorla - sign of divinity
    • left hand on open book - "pax vobis" - peace be on to you
    • 2 fingers pointing up represent him as teacher
    • sharply incisies lines
    • ornamentation on mandrola is similar to metalwork, very detailed
  12. Image Upload 12
    • Creation and Temptation of Adam and Eve 
    • Era: Romanesque, 1100
    • Location: Cathedral of Modena, Italy
    • Techniques:
    • made of marble
    • attempted recession into space through different levels of relief
    • stylized facial features-
    • acking naturalism in bodies
    • static movement
    • Christ is on far left in mandorla as a teacher with a book
    • high relief - creates high play of light and shadow
    • rounded arcade in background
    • highly decorative arch emulates metal work
    • stylized patterns and drawn-on folds, incised lines, direction of folds is regulated
    • at entrance, above doorway - reminder of man's original sin and that salvation is only achieved through Christian church
    • one of the first fully developed narrative reliefs in Romanesque art
  13. Image Upload 13
    • Tympanumn of St. Pierre
    • Era: Romanesque, 1115-1135
    • Location: Moissac, France
    • Techniques:
    • Christ is flanked by four evangelists
    • kings around him, all their heads are turned towards Christ
    • flanked by 2 angels holding scrolls that list's everyone's deeds
    • kings hold musical instrument
    • jambs are scallop-shaped
    • wavy lines divide the kings in to three tiers and represent clouds
    • angels are in a cross legged dancing pose
    • elder's heads are hinged for movement - moissac style
    • dove-tailed folds
    • band-like torsos
    • wide cheek bones
    • hands turned back in towards body
    • contrast of energy between kings and Christ
    • inspire fear in sinners
    • second coming of Christ
  14. Image Upload 14
    • The Prophet Jeremiah
    • Era: Romanesque, 1115-1130
    • Location: St. Pierre, Moissac, France
    • Techniques:
    • made of marble
    • side of trumeau
    • approx. life size
    • holding a scroll where his prophetic vision is written
    • iconographically paring old and new testament themes - he is below Christ
    • elongated figure
    • cross legged dance position
    • movement represents the passionate nature of his soul
    • rounded legs and body- undulating form of body and drapery which mimics the scalloped edging of the jambs
    • folds are drawn on - flowing lines similar to manuscript illuminations
    • serpentine locks of hair that frame his face - capture dreamy mystical look in eyes - receiving prophetic vision
    • interlaced lions - linked to Richard the Lion Heart
    • lions were the churches protectors
  15. Image Upload 15
    • Tympanum of St. Lazare
    • Artist: Gislebertus
    • Era: Romanesque, 1120-1135
    • Location: Autun, France
    • Techniques:
    • made of marble
    • four trumpet blowing angels
    • Christ in mandorla
    • Christ is separated and seated and is dividing the damned and the blessed souls
    • on our left are the blessed souls and on our right is Hell
    • arms are open as he is taking all the souls in
    • background is deeply drilled
    • patterned folds on garment and symmetrical
    • surrounded by four evangelists
    • lintel below him - dead rising to be judged
    • inscription of artist's name below Chrit's feet - request to pray for his salvation on judgement day
    • two men carrying bags inscribed with cross and shell - symbols of pilgrims who go to Jerusalem and Santiago de Compostana
    • 3 figures begging angels to save them but angel points to Christ, the only judge
    • weighing souls in hell
    • demons have thin bodies , insect-like
    • second coming of Christ
    • visual representation of an intangible god, manifestation of the divine
    • developed after turn of millennium
    • Purpose
    •    - warn people and inspire and reassure people that Christ and the church is there for them
    •    - reminds viewer of teaching of scripture
    •    - reinforces the importance of a pilgrimage as a devotional act and part of life's journey
    •    - tympanum is am entryway to the celestial Jerusalem symbolized by the church
    •    - separates the mundane world from the spiritual mysteries inside
    •    - scares sinners into leaving
    •    - inscription "may this terror terrify those who earthly error binds for the horror of these images here in this manner truly depicts what will be" reinforces fear
  16. Image Upload 16
    • The Ascension of Christ and the Mission of the Apostles
    • Era: Romanesque, 1120-1132
    • Location: La Madeline, Vezelay, France
    • Techniques:
    • inside narthex
    • wavy line are the holy spirit coming off Christ and going to apostles
    • goals of apostles
    •    - save or condemn souls
    •    - preach the gospel to all nations
    •    - heal the sick and drive you the devil
    • more realistically seated
    • stylized folds, flat garment
    • quick rhythm in drapery and spinning whirls - conveying spiritual light
    • protruding large nimbus behind him
    • archivolts hold scene of saving and condemning
    • other archivolts are signs of the zodiac and symbols of the season, and works of the month, in medallions
    • lintel - objects of the apostles' missions
    • Christ looms above human misery and deformity
    • presents church as road to salvation
    • church at Vezelay most closely associated with Crusades
  17. Image Upload 17
    • Portals and West Facade, St. Trophime
    • Era: Romanesque, late 12th century
    • Location: Arles, France
    • Techniques:
    • projecting portal that is like a roman arch
    • frieze above free standing columns
    • figures in high relief between columns, Classical statuary
    • strictly Christian subject matter
    • Christ is clearly sitting, projecting knees
    • elaborate garment, each layer has a different length
    • crown represents a celestial and an earthly king
    • surrounded by 4 evangelists in symbolic form
    • lintel has 12 apostles, part of frieze, part of story of last judgement
    • Christ's right is saved and Christ's left is damned
    • sculpture between jambs
    • influenced by Classical
    • undercut folds
    • windblown drapery
    • elongated figures
    • agitated poses and gestures
  18. Image Upload 18
    • Norman Cavalry Charging in the Battle of Hastings
    • Era: Romaesque, 1070-1080
    • Location: Bayeux Tapestry
    • Techniques
    • embroidered wool on linen
    • continuous narration
    • commission by bishop Odo, half brother of William the Conqueror
    • possibly done by wife Mathilda, first large scale art piece done by a woman
    • Battle of Hastings united England and most of France under one rule
    • border filled with sections of animals or with dead or wounded
    • horses have twisting necks and contorted bodies
    • linear patterning
    • flat sections of color
    • larger figures in center
    • diagonal lines in borders signal the end of an event
    • stylized trees separate scenes
    • embroiedered Latin text- compare to Trajan Column - conquerors version of history, represents national pride, showcases all the events that took place
    • hand of god points to West Minister Abbey, location of coronation of every English monarch
    • 1'8" tall by 229'8" long
  19. Image Upload 19
    • Moses Expounding the Law
    • Era: Romanesque, 1135
    • Location: Bury Bible, Bury St. Edmunds, England
    • Techniques:
    • ink and tempera on vellum
    • found in wealthy abbeys
    • symmetrical leaf motif with harmonized colors in the border
    • border limits the function of the figures
    • top scene is Moses and Aaron proclaiming the law of the Bible
    • Moses' "horns" are divine rays of light
    • patterned drapery - creating volume with ladder-like folds
    • almond shaped eyes
    • gestures as a pantomime of ideas - Moses is pointing out the clean edible animals
    • gestures are slow and gentle, quiet dignity
  20. Image Upload 20
    • Eadwine the Scribe
    • Artist: The Scribe Eadwine
    • Era: Romanesque, 1160-1170
    • Location: Canterbury Psalter
    • Techniques:
    • ink and tempera on vellum
    • not a specific likeness of monk, type
    • described himself as a "prince among scribes"
    • signed his own work as a prayer for his salvation
    • drapery falls more softly
    • whorls in shoulders
    • architectural, throne like seat
    • inside an architectural scene- multilobed arch with two columns on side
    • rounded and rhythmic
Author
felara9614
ID
173946
Card Set
Medieval Art (part 3)
Description
Medieval Art (part 3)
Updated