Med Terms Ch. 4

  1. Chromatin
    Structural component of the nucleus, composed of nucleic acids and proteins
  2. Chromosome
    threadlike structures within the nucleus composed of a deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) molecule that carres hereditary information encoded in genes
  3. cytoplasm
    jellylike substance found within the cell membrane composed of proteins, salts, water, dissolved gases, and nutrients
  4. deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)
    molecule that holds genetic information capable of replicating and producing an exact copy whenever the cell divides
  5. diaphragm
    muscular wall that divides the thoracic cavity from the abdominopelvic cavity
  6. metabolism
    sum of all physical amd chemical changes that take place in a cell or an organism
  7. organelle
    cellular structure that provides a specialized function, such as the nucleus (reproduction), ribosomes (protein synthesis), Golgi apparatus (removal of material from the cell) and lysosomes (digestion)
  8. pathology
    path/o: disease
    -logy: study of
    study of the nature of diseases, their causes, development and consequences
  9. peristalsis
    rhythmic contraction and relaxation of the walls of a tubular organ to propel its contents onward
  10. the plane of the body midsagittal (median) means...
    right and left halves
  11. the plane of the body coronal (frontal) means...
    anterior (ventral) and posterior (dorsal) aspects
  12. the plane of the body transverse (horizontal) means...
    superior (upper) and inferior (lower) aspects
  13. The dorsal cavity contains...
    • cranial - brain
    • spinal - spinal cord
  14. the ventral cavity contains...
    • thoracic - heart, lungs, and associated structures
    • abdominopelvic - digestive, excretory, and reproductive organs and structures
  15. right upper quadrant (RUQ)
    right lobe of liver, gallbladder, part of pancreas, part of small and large intestines
  16. left upper quadrant (LUQ)
    left lobe of liver, stomach, spleen, part of pancreas, part of small and large intestines
  17. right lower quadrant (RLQ)
    part of small and large intestines, appemdix, right ovary, right fallopian tube, right ureter
  18. left lower quadrant (LLQ)
    part of small and large intestines, left ovary, left fallopian tube, left ureter
  19. abdominopelvic region: left hypochondriac
    upper left region beneath the ribs
  20. abdominopelvic region: epigastric
    region above the stomach
  21. abdominopelvic region: right hypochondriac
    upper right region beneath the ribs
  22. abdominopelvic region: left lumbar
    left middle lateral region
  23. abdominopelvic region: umbilical
    region of the navel
  24. abdominopelvic region: right lumbar
    right middle lateral region
  25. abdominopelvic region: left inguinal (iliac)
    left lower lateral region
  26. abdominopelvic region: hypogastric
    lower middle region beneath the navel
  27. abdominopelvic region: right inguinal (iliac)
    right lower lateral region
  28. abduction
    movement away from the midsagittal (median) plane of the body or one of its parts
  29. adduction
    movement toward the midsagittal (median) plane of the body
  30. medial
    pertaining to the midline of the body or structure
  31. lateral
    pertaining to a side
  32. superior (cephalad)
    toward the head or upper portion of a structure
  33. inferior (caudal)
    away from the head, or toward the tail or lower part of a structure
  34. proximal
    nearer to the center (trunk of the body) or to the point of attachment to the body
  35. distal
    further from the center (trunk of the body) or from the point of attachment to the body
  36. anterior (ventral)
    front of the body
  37. posterior (dorsal)
    back of the body
  38. parietal
    pertaining to the outer wall of the body cavity
  39. visceral
    pertaining to the viscera, or internal organs, espcecially the abdominal organs
  40. prone
    lying on the abdomen, face down
  41. supine
    lying horizontally on the back, face up
  42. inversion
    turning inward or inside out
  43. eversion
    turning outward
  44. palmar
    pertaining to the palm of the hand
  45. plantar
    pertaining to the sole of the foot
  46. superficial
    toward the surface of the body (external)
  47. deep
    away from the surface of the body (internal)
  48. cyt/o
  49. -logist
    specialist in the study of 
  50. hist/o
  51. -logy
    study of
  52. kary/o and nucle/o
  53. -lysis
    separation; destruction; loosening
  54. anter/o
    anterior, front
  55. caud/o
  56. -ad means...
  57. crani/o
    cranium (skull)
  58. dist/o
    far, farthest
  59. dors/o
    back (of body)
  60. infer/o
    lower, below
  61. later/o
    side, to one side
  62. medi/o
  63. poster/o
    back (of body), behind, posterior
  64. proxim/o
    near, nearest
  65. ventr/o
    belly; belly side
  66. abdomin/o
  67. cervic/o
    neck; cervix uteri (neck of uterus)
  68. gastr/o
  69. ili/o
    ilium (lateral, flaring portion of hip bone)
  70. inguin/o
  71. lumb/o
    loins (lower back)
  72. pelv/i and pelv/o
  73. -meter
    instrument for measuring
  74. spin/o
  75. thorac/o
  76. umbilic/o
    umbilicus, navel
  77. albin/o and leuk/o
  78. chlor/o
  79. chrom/o
  80. cirrh/o, jaund/o, xanth/o
  81. cyan/o
  82. erythr/o
  83. melan/o
  84. poli/o
    gray; gray matter (of brain or spinal cord)
  85. acr/o 
  86. -osis
    abnormal condition; increase (used primarily with blood cells)
  87. eti/o
  88. idi/o
    unknown, peculiar
  89. morph/o
    form, shape, structure
  90. path/o
  91. radi/o
    radiation, x-ray; radius (lower arm bone on thumb side)
  92. somat/o
  93. viscer/o
    internal organs
  94. xer/o
  95. -gram
    record, writing
  96. -graph
    instrument for recording
  97. -graphy
    process of recording
  98. dermat/o
  99. hemat/o
  100. therm/o
  101. -metry
    act of measuring
  102. ventricul/o
    ventricle (of heart or brain)
  103. -pathy
  104. homeo-
    same, alike
  105. ultra- 
    excess, beyond
  106. adhesion
    abnormal fibrous bamd that holds or binds together tissues that are normally separated
  107. analyte
    substance analyzed or tested, generally by means of laboratory methods
  108. contrast medium
    substance injected into the body, introduced via catheter, or swallowed to facilitate radiographic images of internal structures that otherwise are difficult to visualize on x-ray films
  109. dehiscence
    bursting open of a wound, especially a surgical abdominal wound
  110. febrile
    feverish; pertaining to a fever
  111. homeostasis
    relative constancy or balance in the internal enviroment of the body, maintained by processes of feedback and adjustment in response to external or internal changes
  112. -stasis
    standing still
  113. inflammation
    body defense against injury, infection, or allergy that is marked by redness, swelling, heat, pain, and sometimes, loss of function
  114. morbid
    diseased; pertaining to a disease
  115. nuclear medicine
    branch of medicine concerned with the use of radioactive substances for diagnosis, treatment, and research
  116. radiology
    medical specialty concerned wit the use of electromagnetic radiation, ultrasound, and imaging techniques for diagnosis and treatment of disease and injury
  117. interventional
    radiological practice that employs fluorscopy, CT, and ultrasound in nonsurgical treatment of various disorders
  118. therapeutic
    use of ionizing radiation in the treatment of cancer; also called radiation oncology
  119. radionuclides
    substances that emit radiation spontaneously; also called tracers
  120. radiopharmaceutical
    radionuclide attached to a protein, sugar, or other substance used to visualize an organ or area of the body that will be scanned
  121. scan
    term used to describe a computerized image by modality (such as CT, MRI, and nuclear imaging) or by structure (such as thyroid and bone)
  122. sepsis
    pathological state, usually febrile, resulting form the presence of microorganisms or their products in the bloodstream
  123. suppurative
    producing or associated with generation of pus
  124. endoscopy
    visual examination of a body cavity or canal using a specialized lighted instrument called an endoscope
  125. laparoscopy
    visual examination of the organs of the pelvis and abdomen through very small incisions in the abdominal wall
  126. lapar/o
  127. thoracoscopy
    examination of the lungs, pleura, and pleural space with a scope inserted thru a small incision between the ribs
  128. complete blood count (CBC)
    common blood test that enumerates RBC, WBC, and platelets; measures hemoglobin (the oxygen-carrying molecule in RBC); estimates red cell volume; and sorts WBC into 5 subtypes with their percentages
  129. urinalysis (UA)
    common urine screening test that evaluates the physical, chemical, and microscopic properties of urine
  130. computed tompgraphy (CT)
    imaging technique achieved by rotating an x-ray emitter around the area to be scanned and measuring the intensity of transmitted rays from different angles; formerly called computerized axial tomography
  131. tom/o
    to cut
  132. Doppler
    ultrasound technique used to detect and measure blood-flow velocity and direction thru the cardiac chambers, valves, and peripheral vessels by reflecting sound waves off moving blood cells
  133. fluoroscopy
    radiographic technique in which x-rays are directed thru the body to a fluorescent screen that displays continuous motion images of internal structures
  134. fluor/o
    luminous, fluorescent
  135. magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
    noninvasive imaging technique tht uses radiowaves and a strong magnetic field rather than an x-ray beam to produce multiplanar cross-sectional images
  136. nuclear scan
    diagnostic technique that uses a radioactive material (radiopharmaceutical) called a tracer that is introduced into the body (inhaled, ingested, or injected) and a specialized camera to produce images of organs and structures
  137. positron emission tomography (PET)
    scanning technique using CT to record the positrons (positive charged particles) emitted from a a radiopharmaceutical, that produces a cross-sectional image of metabolic activity in body tissues to determine the presence of disease
  138. radiography
    imaging technique that uses x-rays passed thru the body or area and captured on a film; also called x-ray
  139. radi/o
    radiation, x-ray, radius (lower arm bone on thumb side)
  140. single photon emissin computed tomography (SPECT)
    radiological technique that integrates CT and a radioactive material (tracer) injected into the bloodstream to visualize blood flow to tissues and organs
  141. tomography
    radiographic technique that produces an image representing a detailed cross-section, or slice, or an area, tissue, or organ at a predetermined depth
  142. ultrasonography (US)
    imaging procedure using high-frequency sound waves (ultrasound) that display the reflected 'echoes' on a monitor; also called ultrasound, sonography, echo, and echography
  143. biopsy
    representative tissue sample removed from a body site for microscopic examination, usually to establish a diagnosis
  144. frozen section (FS)
    ultra-thin slice of tissue cut from a frozen specimen for immediate pathological examination
  145. needle
    removal of a small tissue sample for examination using a hollow instrument (punch)
  146. shave
    removal of tissue using a surgical blade to shave elevated lesions
  147. ablation
    removal of a part, pathway, or function by surgery, chemical destruction, electrocautery, freezing, or radio frequency (RF)
  148. anastomosis
    surgical joining of two ducts, vessels, or bowel segments to allow flow from one to another
  149. cauterize
    destroy tissue by electricity, freezing, heat, or corrosive chemicals
  150. curettage
    scraping of a body cavity with a spoon-shaped instrument called a curette (curet)
  151. incision and drainage (I&D)
    incision made to allow the free flow or withdrawal of fluids from a wound or cavity
  152. laser surgery 
    surgical technique employing a device that emits intense heat and power at close range to cut, burn, vaporize, or destroy tissues
  153. radical dissection
    surgical removal of tissue in an extensive area surrounding the surgical site in an attempt to excise all tissue that may be malignant and decrease the chance of recurrence
  154. resection
    partial excision of a bone, organ, or other structure
  155. abbreviatio DSA
    digital substraction angiography
  156. Dx
  157. lat
  158. RF
    rheumatoid factor; radio frequency
  159. sono
  160. Sx
  161. Tx
  162. U&L, U/L
    upper and lower
Card Set
Med Terms Ch. 4
Body Structure