1. what are organisms causing infection?
    • -bacteria
    • -viruses
    • -fungi
    • -parasites
    • -prions
  2. an alteration in normal tissue function having characteristic signs and symptoms
  3. invasion of body tissues by pathogenic organisms that multiply and cause injury and inflammatory responses
  4. what are symptoms of a localized infection
    • -redness
    • -pain
    • -warmth
    • -swelling
    • -pus may appear in a specific part (site)
  5. what are symptoms of a generalized infection
    • -redness
    • -pain
    • -swelling
    • -warmth
    • -fever
    • -malise
    • -anorexia
    • -prostration
  6. what are some types of infection
    • -colonization
    • -local
    • -systemic
    • -bacteremia
    • -septicemia
    • -actue
    • -chronic
    • -latent
    • -primary
    • -secondary
    • -community acquired
    • -nosocomial
  7. what type of infection is treated with antibiotics
    systemic infection
  8. what is an endogenous source?
    orginates from clients normal flora and some form of treatment that cause normal harmless bacteria to multiply  

    ex. antibiotics destroy normal flora cause yeast infection
  9. what is an exogenous source
    pathogen acquired from hospital enviroment
  10. what is iatrogenic nosocomial contributing factors
    due to medical therapy

    ex. catherization, IV's
  11. what are factors contributing to nosocomial infections
    • -iatrogenic
    • -compromised host
    • -hand washing (BIGGIE)
  12. what are the common pathogens causing nosocomial infections
    • -Escherichia coli (e.coli)
    • -staphylococcus Aureus (staph)
    • -Pseudomonas Aeruginosa
  13. commom pathogen causing UTI

    -normally lives in the intestines
    -transmitted via unwashed hands, contaminated food and water, improper cleansing
  14. usually lives in nose and on skin of healthy people

    -common cause of nosocomial surgical wound infections and nosocomial septicemia
  15. common pathogen in nosocomial pneumonia

    -found around skins, water, irrigation solutions, nebulizers and respiratory equipment

    -also found in the soil
  16. what is a serum antibody test
    • -measure reaction to certain antigen
    • -positive result does not always mean active infection is present  
  17. what leukocyte will increase if infection is present?
  18. neutrophil is
    • -the most circulating WBC
    • -body's first line of defense in an actue infection
    • -increased in acute, severe inflammation/ infection
    • -phagocytize pathogen
  19. what is gram staining
    • -method of staining bacteria
    • -useful in bacteria taxonomy, identification, and indicating fundamental differennces in cell wall structure
  20. gram positive organisms stain
  21. gram negative organisms stain
  22. eosinophils is
    • -increased in allergic and parasitic conditions
    • -limited role in phagocytosis
  23. basophils is
    • -increased in the healing process
    • -respond to inflammation from injury by releasing histamine and heparin granules as part of the inflammatory response
  24. monocytes is
    • -the body's second line of defense against bacterial infections and foreign substances
    • -stronger than neutrophils and can ingest larger particles of debris
    • -respond late during acute phase of infection and continue to function during chronic phase of phagocytosis

    -increased in some protozoa, and rickettsial infections, TB, and leukemia
  25. what is lymphocytes
    • -Play major role in immune system response as B lymphocytes & T lymphocytes
    • -Increased lymphocytes (lymphocytosis) occurs in chronic & viral infections
    • -Severe lymphocytosis commonly caused by chronic lymphocytic leukemia
    • -Functions include antigen recognition & antibody production
  26. what is ESR or sed rate
    • -Erythocyte sedimentation rate
    • -Early screening test for inflammation
    • -Not a definite test for infection
    • -RBCs become heavier in infection & settle to bottom of test tube
    • -ESR measures speed at which RBCs settle to bottom of test tube
    • -The faster they settle, the greater the inflammation
  27. what is the six chains of infection
    • -Infectious/Causative Agent
    • -Reservoir/Source
    • -Portal of Exit
    • -Mode of Transmission
    • -Portal of Entry
    • -Susceptible Host
  28. infectious/ causative agent is
    -Organism responsible for causing infection
  29. reservoir/ source
    -Place where pathogens live, multiply & reproduce

    • can be:
    • animate
    • inanimate
  30. portal of exit
    -Way the infectious agent leaves the reservoir / source

    -Examples:  Respiratory tract, skin, mm, GI tract, GU tract, open lesions, or placenta
  31. mode of transmission
    -Method in which microbe moves or is carried from one place to another

    • Routes & Means = Direct/ droplet
    •                                Indirect               
    •                                Airborne
Card Set
final midterm review