General Psychology Test 2

  1. What is Classical Conditioning?
    A form of learning in which reflex responses are associated with new stimuli.
  2. What is Unconditional Stimulus (US)?
    A stimulus innately capable of eliciting a response.
  3. What is Unconditioned Response (UR)
    An innate reflex response elicited by an unconditioned stimulus.
  4. What is Neutral Stimulus (NS)?
    A stimulus that does not evoke a response.
  5. What is a Conditioned Stimulus (CS)?
    A stimulus that evokes a response because it has been paired with an unconditioned stimulus.
  6. What is Conditioned Response (CR)?
    A learned response elicited by a conditioned stimulus.
  7. What is Conditioned Emontional Response (CER)?
    An emotional response that has been linked to a previously nonemotional stimulus by classical conditioning.
  8. How is Operant Conditioning acquired?
    Many studies of operate conditioning in animals make use of an operate conditioning chamber.
  9. How is Operant Conditioning extinguished?
    Through operate extinction, learned responses that are not reinforced fade away gradually.
  10. What is the concept of Shaping?
    The gradually molding responses to a final desired pattern.
  11. What is Learning?
    Any relatively permanent change in behavior that can be attributed to experience.
  12. What is Associative Learning?
    The formation of simple associations between various stimuli and responses.
  13. What is Reforcement?
    Any event that increases the probability that a particular response will occur.
  14. What is Acquistion?
    The period in conditioning during which a response is reinforced.
  15. What is Extinction?
    The weakening of a conditioned response through removal of reinforcement.
  16. What is (Stimulus) Generalization?
    The tendency to response to stimuli similar to, but not identical to, a conditioned stimulus.
  17. What is (Stimulus) Discrimination?
    The learned ability to respond differently to similar stimuli.
  18. What is a Response?
    A verbal or written anwser.
  19. What is the concept of Spontaneous Recovery?
    The reappearance of a learned response after its apparent extinction.
  20. What is a Reflex?
    An innate, automatic response to a stimulus; for example, an eye blink.
  21. What is the concept of Negative Attention-Seeking?
  22. What is the effects of Reward?
  23. What is the concept of Positive Reinforcement?
    Occurs when a response is followed by a reward or other positive event.
  24. What is the concept of Negative Reinforcement?
    Occurs when a response is followed by an end to discomfort by the removal of an unpleasant event.
  25. What is the concept of punishment?
    Punishment refers to following a response with aversive (unpleasent) consequence.
  26. What is Continuous Reinforcement?
    A schedule in which every correct reponse is followed by a reinforcer.
  27. What is Partial Reinforcement?
    A pattern in which only a portion of all responses are reinforced.
  28. What is Fixed Ratio(FR) (Schedule)?
    A set of number of correct responses must be made to get a reinforcer. For example, a reinforcer is given for every four correct responses.
  29. What is Fixed Interval(FI) (Schedule)?
    A reinforcer is given only when a correct response is made after a set amount of time has passed since the last reinforced response. Responses made during the time inveral are not reinforced.
  30. What is Variable Ratio(VR) (Schedule)?
    A varied number of correct responses must be made to get a reinforcer. For example, a reinforcer is given after three to seven correct responses; the actual number changes randomly.
  31. What is Variable Interval(VI) (Schedule)?
    A reinforcer is given for the first correct response made after a varied amount of time has passed since the last reinforced response. Responses made during the time interval are not reinforced.
  32. What is Primary Reinforcers?
    Nonlearned reinforcers; usually those that satisfy physiological needs.
  33. What is Secondary Reinforcers?
    A learned reinforcers; often one that gains reinforcing properties by association with a primary reinforcer.
  34. What is Token Reinforcer?
    A tangible secondary reinforcer such as money, gold stars, poker chips, and the like.
  35. What are uses of Token Reinforcers?
    A major advantage of tokens is that they don't lose reinforcing vaule as quickly as primary reinforcers do. Tokens greatly reduce discipline problems with younger childern.
  36. What are the characteristics of effective feedback?
    Feedback is most effective when it is frequent, immediate, and detailed.
  37. What is the concept of "molding" others' behaviors as studied by Bandura?
  38. What is Discovery Learning?
    Learning based on insight and understanding.
  39. What are the conclusion of studies of aggression regarding TV violence, physical punishment, and molding?
  40. What is punishment?
    Any event that follows a response and decreases its likelihood of occuring again.
  41. What is Response Cost?
    Removal of a positive reinforcer after a response is made.
  42. What are the drawbacks to punishment?
    Negative event begins. Escape & Avoidance and Aggression.
  43. What is the concept of Supersitious Behavior?
    A behavior that is repeated because it appears to produce reinforcement, even though it is actually unnecessary.
  44. What is the concept of Escape Learning?
    Escape learning simply reflects the operation of negative reinforcement.
  45. What is the concept of Avoidance Learning?
    Avoidance learning appears to involve both classical and operant conditioning. Once Avoidance is learned, it is very persitent.
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General Psychology Test 2
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