Gov Exam 3

  1. Raising campaign funds, appeasing factions within the party, and enhancing the party’simage, are the primary responsibilities of:
    national party committees
  2. If a country adopts a system of single-member districts and plurality voting, the countrywill likely
    have only two political parties
  3. According to Hudson, the two faces of business power are
    lobby power, electoral influence, and Americans’ philosophy about privateproperty decisions
  4. An organization that can raise and spend unlimited amounts of money in a federalelection for issue advocacy is called:
    a 527
  5. If you think people do not participate in politics because they are not asked, you areadhering to the:
    mobilization model
  6. According to Schmidt et al, a reason or motive for belonging to an interest group “havingto do with economic benefits or opportunities,” is called:
    material incentives
  7. According to Schmidt et al, “rewarding faithful party workers and followers withgovernment employment and contracts” is called:
  8. With respect to the requirement by some states to show an identification card (with aphoto in some states) when attempting to vote in-person, political scientists have found:
    those registered voters without proper identification are usually the elderly, ethnicminorities, and registered Democrats
  9. A "legal-arm" of an interest group designed to raise and spend campaign dollars is called
    a political action committee
  10. According to the Supreme Court opinion in Miller v. Johnson (1995):
    race cannot be used as the predominant factor in the drawing of district lines
  11. According to Schmidt et al, and lecture, a political party’s ability to raise unlimited fundsfor ‘party-building’ activities, mainly used for issue ads, is:
  12. According to Schmidt et al, a “secret ballot prepared, distributed, and tabulated bygovernment officials at public expense,” is called:
    an Australian ballot
  13. According to Schmidt et al, an “effect produced when people purposely and rationallydecide not to become informed on an issue,” because a lack of incentive and a belief thatan individual vote does not matter is called:
    the rational ignorance effect
  14. According to Schmidt et al, the “influence of a popular candidate on the electoral successof other candidates,” typically a popular presidential candidate increasing the chancesthat candidates of the same party will win, is called:
    the coattail effect
  15. According to Schmidt et al, what is the gender gap?
    The difference between the percent of women who vote for a candidate and thepercent of men who vote for that same candidate
  16. According to Schmidt et al, a type of poll where “the respondents are given misleadinginformation in the questions asked to persuade them to vote against a candidate,” is called a
    Push poll
  17. According to Schmidt et al, what is the relationship between public opinion and publicpolicy?
    Public opinion does not make public policy; rather, it restrains officials fromtaking truly unpopular actions.
  18. If a set of powerful interest groups (e.g., the tobacco lobby) airs television advertisementsinstructing individuals to call their member of Congress to complain about howregulating tobacco is harmful to the nation’s economy, then these interest groups areengaging in:
    Indirect lobbying techniques
  19. According to Schmidt et al, one way some interest groups try to communicate acongressional member’s voting record to the public and their members is through:
    A ratings system, compiling all votes a congressional member made on billsimportant to that group
  20. According to Schmidt et al, when voters “prioritize” cultural values at the expense ofeconomic self-interest, voters align with political parties that may not reflect theireconomic self-interest; in other words, there will be a “tendency for wealthier states tofavor Democrats and for less wealthy states to favor Republicans,” which is called:
    The reverse-income effect
  21. According to Schmidt et al, how does the government and media typically calculate voterturnout in America?
    # votes / voting age population (including felons, non-citizens living in thecountry)
  22. According to Schmidt et al, since 1990, the number of women campaigning for andwinning a seat in the House of Representatives has:
  23. In general, according to Schmidt et al, upper income, white evangelical, and more ruralvoters are more likely to vote for:
  24. According to Schmidt et al, why would it be concerning that most media outlets arecorporations existing to make a profit?
    Because too much competition in the news business leads to a shortage ofjournalists
  25. According to Schmidt et al, the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) recently:
    Increased the percentage of national viewing public one media corporation canreach, and allowed one media corporation to own up to 3 TV stations and anewspaper in one market
  26. According to Schmidt et al, in United States v. Harriss (1954), the Supreme Court:
    Upheld the disclosure and regulations of direct lobbying found in the FederalRegulation of Lobbying Act of 1946
  27. According to Hudson, why do interest groups in the United States pose a problem fordemocratic practices?
    The majority of interest groups in the United States represent a business interest,which limits the range of policy solutions to solve problems
  28. According to Lublin, new majority-minority congressional districts created after the 1990census:
    Helped Republicans win a majority of House seats in 1994 because adjoiningdistricts became more conservative
  29. The Bipartisan Campaign Finance Reform Act of 2002 stated:
    corporations, non-profits (501c4s), and labor unions cannot spend money inelections (expenditures, direct contributions) out of their own budgets/treasuries expenditures for television advertisements occurring 30 days before a primary,and 60 days before a general election must have a written and spoken disclaimeron who paid for the advertisement soft money is banned
  30. Which Supreme Court opinion stated that states should draw majority-minority districts if(1) they are geographically compact and the minority group is sufficiently large inpopulation, (2) politically cohesive, and (3) if the minority group would be usually unableto elect their preferred candidate due to a different racial voting bloc?
    Thornburg v. Gingles (1986)
  31. What was the constitutional question at issue in Citizen United v. Federal ElectionCommission (2010)?
    Is the regulation of independent expenditures in the Bipartisan Campaign ReformAct of 2002 a constitutional violation of free speech?
  32. The lawyer for the Federal Election Commission (FEC) in the oral arguments of CitizenUnited v. Federal Election Commission argued that the FEC should be able to regulatecorporate spending in elections because:
    government has an interest in preventing the perception of corruption, curbing thecorrosive effects of immense aggregations of wealth, and protecting shareholders
  33. The majority opinion in Citizens United v. FEC (2010) stated:
    The Tillman Act’s (1907), Federal Election Campaign Act’s (1971, 1974), and theBipartisan Campaign Reform Act’s (2002) ban on the use of corporate/uniontreasuries for independent expenditures violates the first amendment
  34. According to Section 2 of the Voting Rights Act of 1965:
    individuals can sue the government if they feel their voting rights have beeninfringed upon on the basis of their race
  35. As a result of the Supreme Court opinion in Allen v. State Board of Elections (1969), theVoting Rights Act of 1965 is interpreted as stating that:
    in those states meeting the “triggers” in the act, law changes that affect the impactof minority votes must be pre-cleared by the Federal Justice Department
  36. According to Hudson, how have corporations acted since the late 1970s to increase whatwere declining profits?
    Corporations reduced wages and benefits, and created high-risk investments,providing no money to the manufacturing sector
  37. The 1982 amendments to the Voting Rights Act of 1965 required:
    the Federal Justice Department to investigate the effect of redistricting on theimpact of minority voting
  38. In Crawford v. Marion County Election Board (2008), the majority opinion of theSupreme Court:
    up-held Indiana’s voter identification requirement law because showing an ID isan even-handed restriction that protects the integrity of the election process
  39. Median Voter Theory predicts that the policies political parties adopt while in themajority derive from the policy positions of the median voter; thus, political partiesdebate policies that voters care about, and formulate policies voters want. Investmenttheory argues:
    As long as parties must seek money in order to campaign, voters will nevercontrol public policy unless voters start organizing and giving money Political parties maximize money, then appeal to voters with campaign promisesthat their donors will allow Republicans and Democrats will not fight about issues on which both of theirmajor donors agree (e.g., not to have full unionization, not to have a single-payerhealth care system)
  40. According to Lublin (1997), why do majority-minority districts help foster descriptiverepresentation but not substantive representation?
    Because majority-minority districts usually produce a politician that is African-American, if a majority of the population in that district is African-American, butthe remaining districts, especially in the South, are more conservative Because the typical majority-minority district is 65% African-American and not55% Because in the South, an overwhelming majority of Caucasians vote for conservatives
  41. Does voting fraud (defined as committed by voters via in-person voting or mail-inballots) exist?
    No, little evidence exists of voter fraud
  42. Who votes?
    Typically, older people, with higher incomes, and more education than those whodo not vote
  43. The Help American Vote Act of 2002:
    Established federal funds to update electoral systems (voting machines) and voteridentification requirements
  44. What is an independent expenditure?
    Money spent by an individual/PAC for express advocacy for/against a clearlyidentified candidate, spent without consultation with the candidate
  45. What are the two “triggers” in the Voting Rights Act of 1965 that require Federal JusticeDepartment pre-clearance of election law changes in those states that meet those“triggers”?
    If a state had a “test or device” to qualify voters and had less than 50% voterturnout in the 1964 general election
  46. According to Schmidt et al, PAC donations to candidates follow a predictable pattern,which is:
    PACs give a disproportionate amount of money to incumbents
  47. What has been the primary cause of increasing the amount of African-Americans in theHouse of Representatives in the past 20-30 years?
    Majority-Minority Districts
  48. What are “critical elections”?
    Elections that change which party is in the majority for a sustained period of time
  49. Which Supreme Court case rejected part of the FECA of 1971, stating that it isunconstitutional to limit a candidate’s personal expenditures on his/her own campaign?
    Buckley v. Valeo (1976)
  50. According to the dissent opinion written by Justice Stevens in Miller v. Johnson (1995):
    Since the majority opinion argued that African-Americans do not vote cohesivelyenough to have their own district, then the Caucasian voters had no standing to sue The majority opinion equates traditional gerrymanders meant to preservedominant power with gerrymanders meant to share power with an historicallymarginalized group To argue that Caucasian voters were constitutionally harmed by a majorityminoritydistrict assumes that African-Americans and Caucasians vote in aconsistent, opposite fashion,
Card Set
Gov Exam 3
Gov Exam 3