1. species
    popuation of organisms that interbreed and are reproductively isolated from other groups
  2. allopatric speciation
    geographic isolation; after separation, a species cannot breed with the parent population, so speciation occurs(new species)
  3. mebrane potential in palnts
    difference in voltag between inerior and exterio ofthe cell wall
  4. endosymbiotic theory
    all eukaryotic cells came from prokaryotic cells
  5. support for endosymbiotic theory
    • 1. endosymbiosis is common today
    • 2. chloroplasts and mitochondria are double membrane bound
    • 3. C and M have small chromosomes
    • 4. C and M have bacteria-like ribosomes
    • 5. C and M go through binary fission
  6. origin of eukaryotic cell*
  7. purpose of gastrula
    to convert an embryo with one layer of cells into an embry with 3 layers of cells
  8. ectoderm forms
    nervous system and epidermis
  9. endoderm forms
    inner lining of the alimentary canal
  10. transport of phloem sap
    moves by bulk flow. sucrose is actively bein made and moved into sieve tube members by active transport. source to sink
  11. bryophytes have no:
    vascular tissue
  12. bryophytes adaptation to land
    cuticle, gametangia, stromata
  13. antheridium gametangia
    male part of bryophytes that contains the sperm cells
  14. archegonium gametangia
    female part of bryophytes that contains the egg cells
  15. bryophytes are poorly adapted to land because:
    they need water in order to reproduce because the sperm needs to swim in water in order to fertilize
  16. dominant bryophyte generation
  17. seedless vascular plants
    non-seed tracheophytes such as ferns and horsetails
  18. sporangium
    structure that produces spores in seedless vascular plants
  19. when did s.v.p. first evolve
    • about 400 million years ago
    • successful
  20. gymno=
    • gymno=naked
    • sperm=seed
  21. gymnosperms
    • plants that evolved 360 million years ago and has seeds and produces pollen
    • ex. conifers (pine trees)
  22. are gymnosperms well adapted to land?
  23. pollen grain
    immature male gametophyte
  24. what gymnosperm generation is dominant?
  25. angiosperms
    flowering plants that evolved 130 million years ago
  26. describe an angiosperm seed
    enclosed by fruit (ovary) which functions as a means for dispersal
  27. mycorrhizae
    symbiotic relationship between a plant root and fungus (mutualistic)
  28. how does mycorrhizae work?
    A fungus colonizes the cells of a plant's roots, and the hyphae of myecelium produces a root-like structure. The stucture produces a tremendous root area, which allows the plant to absorb more nutrients from the soil. The fungus will get the products of photosynthesis from the plant.
  29. myecillium
    an entire network of hyphae
  30. hyphae
    the microscopic, cylindrical, filamentrous structure that makes up fungi
  31. alternation of generations
    Image Upload 2
  32. what do protostomes and deuterostomes refer to?
    the differing fate of the initial opening of the primitive digestive tract in the embryo
  33. protostomes
    blastopore developes into the mouth and th anus is formed second
  34. proto: phyla included
    • anthropoda
    • annelida
    • mollusca
  35. proto: cleavage
    spiral cleavage, determinate
  36. proto: coelom formation
    schizocoelous, the body cavity begins as a split within a bud of mesodermal tissue at the time of gastrlation
  37. deuterostomes
    the blastopore developes into the anus and the mouth is formed second
  38. deutero: phyla included
    • chordata
    • echinodermata
  39. deutero: cleavage
    indeterminate radial cleavage
  40. deuero: coelom formation
    entercoelous, coelom originates from an outpocketing of the archeterons during gastrulation
  41. coelom
    body cavity lined wth epithelium derivedfrm the mesoderm
  42. pure water at one atmospere of pressure has a water potential of
    1 megapascal
Card Set
key term and concepts from exam 1