A&P 1 Chapter 1.txt

  1. Hypothesis
    Idea or principle to be tested in experiments
  2. Experiment
    Series of tests of a hypothesis; a controlled experiment eliminates biases or outside influences
  3. Theory
    A hypothesis that has been proved by experiments to have a high degree of confidence
  4. Law
    A theory that has a unusually high level of confidence
  5. Anatomy
    Science of the normal structure of an organism and the relationship of its parts
  6. Gross Anatomy
    Study of the body and its parts using only the naked eye
  7. Microscopic Anatomy (Histology)
    The study of the body parts using a microscope
  8. Cytology
    The study of cells
  9. Histology
    The study of tissues
  10. Developmental anatomy
    Study of human growth and development
  11. Pathological anatomy
    Study of diseased body structures
  12. Systemic anatomy
    Study of the body by systems
  13. Physiology
    Science of the normal functions of organisms
  14. Autopoiesis
    Living organisms are self-organized and self maintaining
  15. Cell Theory
    If it is made of one ore more cells, it is alive
  16. Characteristics of Life
    • Responsiveness
    • Conductivity
    • Growth
    • Respiration
    • Digestion
    • Absorption
    • Secretion
    • Excretion
    • Circulation
    • Reproduction
  17. Metabolism
    Sum of all physical and chemical reactions occurring in the living body
  18. Level of Organization
    • Chemical
    • Organelle
    • Cellular
    • Tissue
    • Organ
    • Organ System
    • Organism
  19. What allows the cell to live?
    The organelles
  20. Cells
    The smallest and most numerous units that possess and exhibit characteristics of life
  21. Tissue
    An organization of similar cells specialized to perform a certain function
  22. Ipsilateral
    On the same side of the body in the anatomical position
  23. Contralateral
    Structures on opposite sides of the body in anatomical position
  24. Ventral Body Cavity
    • Thoracic Cavity
    • Abdominopelvic Cavity
  25. Thoracic Cavity
    • Pleural Cavities
    • Mediastinum
  26. Dorsal Body Cavity
    • Cranial Cavity
    • Spinal Cavity
  27. Axial region
    • Head, Neck
    • Torso
  28. Appendicular Region
    Upper and Lower extremities
  29. Abdominal Regions
    • Right hypocondriac
    • epigastric
    • left hypochondriac
    • right lumbar
    • umbilical
    • left lumbar
    • right iliac
    • hypogastric
    • left iliac
  30. Endomorphe
    • Heavy, rounded physique with accumulation of fat
    • Apple-shaped- more fat in wais than hip
    • Pear-shaped- more fat in hips than waist
  31. Mesomorph
    Muscular physique
  32. Ectomorph
    Very thin with little fat
  33. Homeostasis
    The relative constant states maintained by the body- internal environment around body cells remain constant
  34. Examples of Homeostasis
    • Temperature regulation
    • Regulation of blood CO2
    • Regulation of blood glucose
  35. Homeostatic Control Mechanisms
    • Sensor Mechanism
    • Integrating or control centers
    • Effector Mechanism
    • Feedback
  36. Sensor Mechanism
    Specific sensors detect and react to any changes from normal
  37. Integrating or control centers
    Information is analyzed and integrated and then if needed a specific action is initiated
  38. Effector Mechanism
    Effectors directly influence controlled physiological variables
  39. Feedback
    Process of information about a variable constantly flowing back from the sensor to the integrator
  40. Negative Feedback
    • Inhibitory
    • Stabilize physiological variables
    • Produce and action to change that activated system
    • Responsible for maintaining homeostasis
  41. Positive Feedback
    • Stimulatory
    • Amplify or reinforce a change that is occurring
    • Tend to disrupt homeostasis
    • Ex: Uterine contractions or sneezing
  42. Intracellular control
    Regulates within the cells
  43. Intrinsic controls
    • Regulates within tissues or organs
    • May involve chemical signals
  44. Extrinsic controls
    • Regulation from organ to organ
    • May involve nerve signals
    • May involve endocrine signals
  45. Atrophy
    Term used to describe wasting effects of advanced aging.
Card Set
A&P 1 Chapter 1.txt
A&P1 Organization of the Body