According to Schmidt et al, “funding appropriations that are specifically designated for anamed project in a member's state or district” are called:
According to lecture and Schmidt et al, the president has several powers as Chief Legislator,which makes this term less oxymoronic. One of these powers is “a written declaration that apresident may make when signing a bill into law…such statements point out sections of thelaw that the president deems unconstitutional.” Such written declarations are called::
Signing statements, which increased in use under George W. Bush
The term “street-level bureaucrats” refers to:
lower-level bureaucrats who use their discretion to alter the implementation ofpublic policy
Which branch of American government has the power to declare war?
Legislative Branch (Congress)
Under which of the following conditions is a filibuster a sensible legislative tactic?
when one is a Senator in the minority trying to block a bill
Which of the following advantages belong to the majority party in the House ofRepresentatives:
naming the Speaker of the House all committee and subcommittee chairmanships a majority of members on committees and subcommittees
If a conference committee is made up of 16 Representatives and 10 Senators, what is theminimum vote needed to approve a compromised bill?
9 Representatives and 6 Senators
Why would Congress use its oversight capabilities?
to examine bureaucratic agencies, making sure that the laws are being executedand administered in the spirit with which they were passed
According to lecture, an executive order is:
an action by the president to establish or modify rules of executive agencies a representation of the president's legislative power a rule or regulation issued by the president that has the effect of law
How many votes does it take to pass a law in the Senate?
President Dwight D. Eisenhower, in his Farewell Address, discusses the military-industrialcomplex, which refers to:
The economic and psychological ties to a professionalized, expanding, andpermanent military
What is Judicial Review?
the power of the Supreme Court to review the constitutionality of any law passedby Congress, any actions by other branches of government, and/or laws passed bystate legislatures
The power of judicial review was:
A power the Supreme Court gave itself in Marbury v. Madison (1803)
The US President chooses a Supreme Court nominee based upon:
political party and ideology legal qualifications and age ideology and age
Writ of Certiorari refers to:
the Supreme Court issuing an order to review a lower courts decision
Who possibly benefits by unnecessary complexity in the congressional process?
congressional members and organized interest groups
The House of Representative Committee on Agriculture is an example of a permanent:
A rule which says the House may consider any and all amendments to a proposed bill duringfloor debate is known as:
an open rule
During lecture, I stated three goals of a congressional member, these goals are:
reelection, power within Congress, and good public policy
As stated in lecture, why does the Congress have the committee system?
the committee system helps congressional members achieve their goals, andmediates the collective action problem in achieving these goals
If a congressional member has the same policy preferences as you, and represents thosepreferences in Congress, this type of representation is called:
According to lecture, there is a trend in the presidential nomination process that “front-loads”presidential primaries, which means:
Most of the delegates are awarded early in the primary season
Why would the president rely on the Executive Office of the Presidency (EOP) more thanhis/her Cabinet for policy advice
Cabinet officials want to protect their agencies needs and do not always respondto the President’s policy priorities The EOP is more loyal to the president, as some of these advisors were part ofhis/her campaign
According to Schmidt et al, “an arrangement in which two or more members of Congressagree in advance to support each other’s bills” is called:
According to Schmidt et al, “an agreement on the rules of debate for proposed legislation inthe Senate that is approved by all the members” is called:
Unanimous Consent Agreement
According to Schmidt et al, “a law passed in 1973 spelling out the conditions under whichthe president can commit troops without Congressional approval” is called:
The War Powers Resolution
How many members of the House and Senate does it take to override a presidential veto?
2/3 of the House and the Senate
Why is front-loading important?
it allows certain states to dictate who becomes the party’s presidential nomineesover other states and makes the “invisible primary” important for winning theseearly primaries
According to Schmidt et al and lecture, when comparing the members of Congress to theAmerican population on demographic characteristics such as percent female, percentminority, age, and wealth:
Congress is richer, has less females and ethnic minorities, and is older than theAmerican population
According to Hudson, at the time of the Founding, Americans believed that a standing armywas incongruent with democracy. What two events caused a shift in this attitude?
the economic need to produce weapons and the increasing reliance on the draft
The iron-triangle view of policymaking argues that legislation is a product of a friendlyrelationship between:
Congressional committee members, interest group lobbyists, and bureaucraticagents
According to Schmidt et al, if the Supreme Court, or the federal court system more generally,decides the issue before them is a “political question,” then the Court believes:
It should not make a decision to hear this case because the issue should bedecided by the executive or legislative branch
A session of a congressional subcommittee or committee where the group reviews aproposed bill line-by-line and votes on proposed changes is:
In the United States, what was one way that we have tried to achieve descriptiverepresentation?
We drew congressional district boundaries to encompass a majority of AfricanAmericans or Hispanics (i.e., majority-minority districts)
According to one theory of congressional committee formation, congressional committeesexist to send material benefits (e.g., money, projects) back to each individual politician’sdistrict, helping politicians achieve their goal of reelection. What is the name of this theory?
Distributive Benefits Theory
The public, recorded vote of a member of the House of Representatives and/or the Senate iscalled
A roll call vote
According to lecture, what is one criticism of those trying to achieve descriptiverepresentation in the United States?
The groups that should have descriptive representation may not have uniquepolitical interests (e.g., interests different from those politicians already holdingoffice)
According to lecture, why would a candidate for his/her party’s presidential nomination nottake public matching funds during the primary?
Because there is a cap on the amount that candidate can spend when using publicmatching funds; he/she can raise and spend more than the cap allows
According to lecture, how does the Electoral College system help dictate presidentialcampaign strategy?
Presidential candidates campaign most heavily in states that both the Democraticand Republican candidate can win, and have enough Electoral College votes tomake campaigning worthwhile
The Federal Communications Commission is an example of a(n):
Independent Regulatory Agency
According to Schmidt et al, the responsibility of most bureaucratic agencies is to regulatebusiness industries. When business industries control, either directly or indirectly,bureaucratic agency decisions this agency is said to be:
As quoted in Schmidt et al, the foreign policy doctrine that states the United Statesgovernment will defend “the American people, and our interests at home and abroad byidentifying and destroying the threat before it reaches our borders,” and the United Statesgovernment “will not hesitate to act alone, if necessary, to exercise our right of self-defenseby acting preemptively,” is called:
The Bush Doctrine
What was the constitutional issue(s) facing the Supreme Court in Marbury v. Madison?
Is Marbury entitled to his job? Is the Supreme Court the proper venue forMarbury to sue Madison, as established by the Judiciary Act of 1789?
A federal court judge, or a Supreme Court Justice, who believes the courts should checklegislative, executive, and state power by declaring laws unconstitutional is called a:
From 1883 (the Civil Rights Cases) through the 1930s (e.g., Lochner v. New York), theSupreme Court interpreted the 14th Amendment differently, depending on the facts of thecase. According to your mandatory reading (Hudson), what pattern did this interpretationfollow?
When applied to Civil Rights for African Americans, the Supreme Courtinterpreted the 14th Amendment narrowly (not applying to discrimination byprivate individuals or corporations), and when applied to corporations, theSupreme Court interpreted the 14th Amendment broadly (giving corporations 14thAmendment protections, striking down regulation of business practices)
According to the Supreme Court decision in Santa Clara County v. Southern PacificRailroad (1886):
Corporations are “legal persons” and entitled to protection under the 14thAmendment
According to your mandatory reading (Hudson), what are the consequences of judicialreview on democracy?
Judicial review is inherently undemocratic and stifles ongoing democraticdeliberations about the issues
According to the Senate Contract Oversight Subcommittee, how has the use of privatemilitary firms in Afghanistan changed from the Bush presidency to the Obama presidency?
President Obama has increased the use of private military firms in Afghanistan by40%
According to Schmidt et al, the doctrine that adopted the “containment” theory of foreignpolicy to halt communist expansion in Southeastern Europe (and eventually other regions) iscalled:
The Truman Doctrine
What act of Congress established the modern-day Department of Defense, the NationalSecurity Council, and the Central Intelligence Agency?