History 210

  1. Omo I
    Who, discovered by Richard Leakey

    What, oldest skeletal remains of homo sapiens

    When, discovered 1967, almost 200,000 years old

    Where, discovered in what is now Ethiopia

    Significance, Omo I is significant because it is the oldest fossil remains of homo sapiens discovered and gives us the starting point for the peopling of the earth.
  2. “Out of Africa”
    Who, African Eve, woman that all homo sapiens can be traced back to.

    What, we are all “African” and have African roots, and left Africa about to inhabit other parts of the world

    When, Around 150,000 years ago, left 90,000 years ago

    Where, East Africa, Ethiopia, Herto

    Significance, This thesis is significant because it is evidence of the beginning of the first homo sapiens and the link that connects all humans
  3. “Multiregional”
    Who, Franz Weidenreich first, Carleton Coon second

    What, debunked theory that humans evolved form different species at different ties in different places.


    Where, All over

    Significance, This hypothesis is significant because it is a common misconception that humans evolved in different places at different times rather than all from one place.
  4. Y- Chromosome DNA
    Who, passed father to son

    What, mutations (markers) passed down in the y-chromosome help genetics identify common lineages

    When, 150,000 to now

    Where, Out of Africa

    • Significance, This is significant because tracing this marker can help create a map and
    • timeline of when and where he first homo sapiens traveled out of Africa.
  5. Jared Diamond Thesis
    Who, Jared Diamond scientist

    • What, wanted to figure out why certain people have so much technology and other
    • culture have so little

    When, 2000s

    Where, African, new Guinea

    Significance, Significant because a theory that it is due to the type of animals that inhabit certain geography is the reason why certain regions are still foragers and why is so advanced. And that Europe happens to fall in the best axis
  6. Mohenjo-Daro
    Who, Great River Valley States

    What, Largest city in Pakistan Area, considered Harappa

    When, 2000 BCE

    Where, Indus River, Pakistan

    • Significance, Mohenjo-Daro is the biggest city in the Pakistan area and is considered to be
    • part of the Harappa and considered very significant because it was one of the most
    • advance civilization of the time.
  7. Khufu
    Who, Pharaoh of Egypt during old kingdom

    What, considered a god and built one the pyramids

    When, 2500 BCE

    Where, Egypt

    • Significance, Khufu is significant because he is considered on the quintessential pharaohs of the old
    • kingdom of Egypt. He was considered a god and the people built him an elaborate pyramid for him.
  8. Ramses II
    Who, Pharaoh of Egypt during new kingdom

    What, quintessential pharaoh of the new kingdom

    When, 1200, BCE

    Where, Egypt

    • Significance, Ramses II is significant because he is a prominent pharaoh that led Egypt who
    • also used propaganda about his battle with the Hittites. Not considered a god,
    • but chosen by god to rule.
  9. Sargon of Akkad
    Who, Akkadian Emperor, know as The Great king

    What, known for his conquering of the Sumerian city states

    When, 2500 BCE

    Where, What is now Syria and Iran

    • Significance, Sargon was one of the first empires who expanded by conquering other city
    • states around him
  10. Hatti
    Who, Hittite Kingdom

    • What, Hittites drew millions of the people know has the children of Hatti into a single
    • network of production and distribution under a common allegiance and built an
    • empire

    When, 1800-1500 BCE

    Where, Anatolia, what is now Turkey

    • Significance, Hatti is significant because it was one the first kingdoms to bring its people
    • into a single state political and economic system.
  11. Kush (Napata)
    Who, Upper Nile Kingdom

    What, 25th Dynasty of Egypt

    When, 750 BCE

    Where, Upper Nile, Africa, Egypt

    • Significance, Kush, is the time of the first Black Pharaohs and invade Egypt and ruled over
    • 50 years
  12. Mandate of Heaven
    Who, Chinese philosophical concept of rulers, first was Zhou Dynasty

    What, Belief that ruler need divine approval to rule

    When, 1054 – 700 BCE

    Where, China, Zhou Dynasty

    • Significance, This is significant because it shows that change of that first rulers were
    • considered gods themselves, but now that rulers where chosen by the gods and
    • not gods themselves.
  13. Olmecs
    Who, people inhabiting in area in Mexico

    • What, first to create agricultural mounds that got the swamp water to irrigate aswell
    • as raise fish in cannals and made huge stone face structures

    When, 1500- 400 BCE

    Where, Mesoamerica, what is now Mexico

    • Significance, the Olmecs cultivation techniques influenced adjacent Mesoamerican civilizations
    • because they were high yielding
  14. Phoenicia
    Who, early civilization

    What, maritime culture and relied on trade and were excellent ship builders

    When, 1000 – 800 BCE

    Where, Eastern coast of the Mediterranean sea

    • Significance, Among the fist to set up trading post by sea and their alphabet was foundation
    • of English alphabet
  15. Carthage
    Who, earliest colony of the Phoenicians

    What, trading post along the Mediterranean

    When, 800 – 150 BCE

    Where, Along the Northern African coast

    • Significance, Wanted control of the Mediterranean sea trade and most important Phoenician
    • colony, colonization
  16. Nineveh
    Who, Assyrian civilization

    What, the Capital of the Assyrian empire

    When, 911 – 612 BCE

    Where, What is now Northern Baghdad

    • Significance, Oldest and most populated city of the Assyrian empire and the home of the king
    • and magnificent art displays of the king entertaining the gods because kings
    • were seen as only intimate with gods not as gods themselves
  17. Nebuchadnezzar II
    Who, King of Babylon

    What, planned massive building projects including the “Hanging gardens”

    When, 605 – 522 BCE

    Where, Babylon what is now Baghdad

    • Significance, Remembered his palace which was comprised of magnificent art and architecture
    • as well as the hanging garden of Babylon one of the seven wonders of the world
  18. Bantu Migration
    • Who, West
    • African civilization

    What, migration of Bantu speakers throughout Africa into the great lakes

    When, Started in 1000 BCE

    Where, West Africa, Great Lakes region

    • Significance, Significant for the spread of agriculture, herding and iron smelting throughout
    • Africa
  19. Silk Roads
    Who, Eurasia

    • What, interconnected
    • trade routes across Eurasia

    When, 500 BCE

    Where, Asia to Europe and all around

    • Significance, Major development of land and sea trade routes that allowed civilization all
    • from Europe to Asia trade with one another
  20. Kingdom of Israel
    Who, Hebrews

    What, Monarchy created by the Hebrews

    When, 1300 – 1000 BCE

    Where, Palestine

    Significance, its capital was Jerusalem and holy land of the Jews
  21. Babylonian Captivity
    Who, Babylonians

    What, Hebrews in captivity form of worship changes and rededication to Yahweh

    When, 586 – 537 BCE

    Where, Babylon

    • Significance, This is when the Jews were exiled from Babylon and allowed to return to Israel
    • and a pivotal time for Judaism because of their disobedience to Yahweh
  22. Cyrus the Great
    Who, Persian King

    What, Founder of the Persian Empire and stretched the empire across the middle east

    When, 600 – 530 BCE

    Where, From India to Egypt to Turkey

    • Significance, under his ruler Persia was the largest empires and also had society of sexual
    • equality. Cyrus also allowed the Jews to return to Jerusalem
  23. Warring States Period
    • Who, Eastern
    • Zhou Dynasty

    • What, Chinese
    • warlords annexed smaller states around them and consolidated their powers

    When, 475 - 221

    Where, China

    • Significance, The Warring States Period saw the proliferation of iron working in China, replacing
    • bronze as the dominant type of metal used in warfare
  24. Parthenon
    Who, Greeks

    What, temple to the Greek goddess Athena

    When, 447 BCE

    Where, Greece

    • Significance, the Parthenon is an excellent example of Greek engineering and construction.
    • Also Greek structures are the bases form much of American architecture of today
  25. Gautama Siddhartha
    Who, created religion

    What, ­Buddhism

    When, 600 BCE

    Where, India

    • Significance, Siddhartha or the Buddha created Buddhism, which is a major religion to this
    • day where a combination of mediation, prayer and unselfish behavior one can
    • achieve happiness or nirvana
  26. Confucius
    Who, thinker and philosopher

    • What, called for respect of the gods and ancestors but refused interest in other worlds
    • other than our own

    When, 500 BCE

    Where, China

    • Significance, emphasized personal and governmental mortality, correctness of social
    • relationships, justice ands sincerity
  27. Persian-Greek Wars
    Who, Persians and the Greeks

    What, Persians wanted to expand and conquer Europe and invade Greek

    When, 500 – 400 BCE

    Where, Greece

    Significance, at the time it was a clash of the great empires and study as a great battle.
  28. Alexander the Great
    • Who, King
    • of Greece

    What, immensely expanded the Greek empire

    When, 338 BCE

    Where, Greek to India

    • Significance, Alexander the great is one of the most written about heroes and know and
    • remembered for his conquering of the Persians and expanding Greek empire all
    • the way to India
  29. Asoka
    Who, King of India

    What, responsible for the imperialism of India

    When, 260 - 223 BCE

    Where, India

    • Significance, Asoka became Enlightened and followed Buddhism and spread Buddhism across India
    • and ruled his empire according to Buddha ideals
  30. Shi Hangdi
    Who, King of Qin

    What, conquered the warring states and rebuilt an empire

    When, 246 – 221 BCE

    Where, China

    • Significance, there was chaos in china among the divided warring states and Shi re-conquered
    • the states in order to bring unity to china
  31. Essay 1
  32. Point 1,
    • Geography, axis of earth where that majority of animals that are optimal to be
    • domesticated are found in this area

    • Point 2,
    • Out of Africa theory, we all came form Africa, and dispersed all around, there
    • was no further biological evolution of homo sapiens

    • Point 3,
    • People that traveled to the Americas in 13,00 BCE and were there and survived
    • until Europeans came in 1400s CE
  33. Essay 2
    • Point 1,
    • The Hittite Kingdom, which developed in the 1800s BCE would meet it tragic
    • downfall. It would collapse because they were depended on trade because their
    • land was not conducive to farming and agriculture was became one of their
    • weaknesses. They were growing to fast and did not have the resources or manpower
    • to satiate everyone. And they could not expand past their borders of the
    • immovable powers of Egypt and Mesopotamia. Thus leading to the disappearance of
    • the Hittites in the 1200s BCE

    • Point 2,
    • Another civilization to collapse was Crete. Which was located in Mediterranean Islands,
    • the Crete region was large but the terrain was mostly mountain ranges leaving
    • very little land to cultivate. Because of this Cretan food supply was limited
    • and the Cretan decided to store the limited food and then redistribute it but
    • shown from skeletal remains the Cretan were malnutrition. Crete met its
    • downfall due to its week economy and complicated and incompetent food
    • distribution system, which caused possible internal war. But their
    • disappearance was also do to Earthquakes

    • Point 3,
    • One civilization that survived past 1000 BCE was Egypt. It had already been around
    • for hundreds of years but Egypt was able to survive in a time where others fell
    • because of its endurance to survive after invasions and keep its agrarian
    • system intact. Egypt did fluctuate in size but the civilization stayed whole
    • and under the command of pharaoh such as Ramses III was able to ward off the
    • invasion attempts by the sea people keep Egypt political system together.
Card Set
History 210