1. What is the five enduring issues?
    • *Person-Situation
    • *Nature-Nuture
    • *Stability-Change
    • *Diversity-Universality
    • *Mind-Body
  2. What is Social psychology?
    Explores how society influences the individual including such topics as interpersonal attraction, persuasion, attitude formation, obedience, confirmity, and group behavior.
  3. What is Personality Psychology?
    Studies the differences on such traits as sociability, emotional stability, consientiousness, and self-esteem.
  4. What is developmental psychology?
    The study of how people gtrow and change physically, cognitively, emotionally, and socially, ffrm prenatal period through death. Subfields include child, adolescent, and life-span psychology.
  5. Defintion of Psychology?
    The scientific study of behavior and mental processes.
  6. What is Industrial and Organizational psychology?
    Applies the principle of psychology to the workplace focusing on the practical issues of personnel selection and training, working conditions, workplace morale, and leadership.
  7. What is Clinical and Counseling Psychology?
    Applies the principle of psychology to mental health and adjustment. Clinical psychology focuses on the diagnosis and treatment of mental disorders while counseling psychology is more concerned with "normal" adjustment issues such as making difficult choices or coping with a troubled relationship.
  8. What is Experimental Psychology?
    Investigates basic psychological processes such as sensation and perception, memory, intelligence, learning, and motivation.
  9. What is Physiological Psychology?
    Investigates the biological basis of behavior. Subfields include neuroscience, biological psychology and behavior genetics.
  10. A scientist decides to
    solve a problem by collecting data through careful systematic observation,
    developing theories, making predictions based on those theories, and
    systematically testing those predictions. The scientist is using ________.
    the scientific method 
  11. Confronted with a figure
    like ======>, a Gestalt psychologist would describe it as ________.
    an arrow 
  12. Among psychologists in recent years, the general shift away from a limited focus on behavior toward a broad interest in mental processes is known as the ________.
    cognitive revolution 
  13. People began to apply the scientific method to questions about behavior and mental processes in the late ________.
  14. The process of examining the information we have, based on this inquiry, making judgments and decisions is called ________.
    critical thinking 
  15. The person most directly responsible for moving psychology out of the realm of philosophy and into the world of science is ________.
    Wilhelm Wundt 
  16. Which of the following is NOT one of the main stages of the history of psychology discussed in your text?
    the Gestalt revolution
  17. B. F. Skinner is associated with ________.
  18. James argued that consciousness ________.
    flows in a continuous stream 
  19. A systematic explanation of a phenomenon that organizes known facts, allows the prediction of new facts, and permits a degree of control over the new phenomenon is known as a ________.
  20. James suggested that when we repeat something several times, ________.
    our nervous systems change 
  21. ________ are interested in the workings of the brain and the nervous system.
  22. If I ran a TV station and wanted a consultant to advise me on children's programming, I would most likely hire a(n) ________ psychologist.
  23. Freud's theories differed radically from the views of American psychologists of his time because of ________.
    the emphasis they placed on unconscious processes 
  24. The idea that psychology should be based only on observable, measurable behaviors is central to ________.
  25. The term "psychology" is defined by your text as the "science of behavior and mental processes." According to your text, the key word in that definition is ________.
  26. Researchers have found that men tend to use their brains differently than women when solving some types of problems. Which of the following types of psychologists would probably be MOST interested in conducting this type of research?
    experimental psychologists 
  27. Each of the following is one of five enduring issues that draws psychologists together EXCEPT ________.
  28. Pavlov called his method of training ________.
  29. A group of psychologists study how people influence one another, exploring issues such as first impressions, interpersonal attraction, and how attitudes are formed and maintained. These psychologists are most likely ________ psychologists.
  30. If you looked at an apple and recognized it because of seeing its red, round shape, with a stem at the top, remembering what other apples had looked like, and remembering that you really like the taste of apples, you would be supporting the ________ school of psychology.
  31. Modern approaches to psychology ________.
    tend to complement each other, with each approach contributing in its own way to our understanding of human behavior
  32. The most controversial of psychology's pioneers is ________.
    Sigmund Freud
  33. Watson believed that ________.
    an infant is essentially a tabula rasa
  34. Each of the following is a strategy described in the text for questioning assumptions and examining data EXCEPT ________.
  35. A specific, testable prediction about a phenomenon, usually derived from a theory, is a ________.
  36. The history of psychology can be divided into ________ main stages.
  37. Before psychology was a formal discipline, it was a branch of the general field of ________.
  38. Psychologists are interested in ________.
    every aspect of human thought and behavior
  39. Wilhelm runs an experiment and finds that males with high levels of testosterone tend to be more physically aggressive than males with lower levels of testosterone. This leads him to believe that testosterone has a direct effect on physical aggression in males. Wilhelm's belief is BEST described as a ________.
  40. The ________ influences blood pressure, thirst, contractions of the uterus during childbirth, milk production, sexual behavior and interest, and body growth.
    pituitary gland
  41. A frog muscle is stimulated with an electric current but the muscle doesn't twitch. This probably happens because ________.
    the threshold of excitation was not reached
  42. The tiny space between the axon terminal of one neuron and the dendrite of another neuron is called the ________.
    synaptic cleft
  43. When the electrical charge inside a neuron is negative, in relation to the outside, the neuron is said to be in a state of ________.
  44. You are a cell in the human nervous system. Your primary function is to provide support for neurons, hold them together, and help remove waste products and other substances which could otherwise harm them. You are a(n) ________ cell.
  45. A college student is having difficulty staying awake during the day and sleeping through the night. Her difficulties are MOST likely due to problems in the ________.
  46. Undifferentiated precursor cells that, under the right conditions, can give rise to any specialized cell in the body are called ________ cells.
  47. The entire area composed of the axon terminal of one neuron, the synaptic cleft, and the dendrite or cell body of the next neuron is called the _______.
  48. The branch of the autonomic nervous system that prepares the body for quick action in an emergency is the ________ division.
  49. The human brain has, on average, ________ cells.
    100 billion
  50. Organisms or fluids attempting to enter the cell body of a neuron must first pass through the ________.
    cell membrane
  51. Experts believe that the average variation in the human genetic code for any two people is ________ percent.
    less than 1
  52. The thick bundle of nerves connecting the two cerebral hemispheres which coordinates their activities is the ________.
    corpus callosum
  53. In regards to the brain, the term "plasticity" refers to ________.
    ability to adapt to new conditions
  54. The brain scanning technique that offers the most hope for understanding disorders such as amnesia and dyslexia is ________.
    magnetoencephalography (MEG)
  55. The smallest unit in the nervous system is called the ________.
  56. Electrically charged particles found both inside and outside the neuron are ________.
  57. Traditionally, injuries to the spinal cord have been considered ________.
  58. The part of a neuron which contains the nucleus, the largest amount of mass in the cell, and is where metabolism takes place, is the ________.
     cell body
  59. Cells that form the myelin sheath are called ________.
    glial cells
  60. The purity, richness, or vividness of a hue is known as its ________.
  61. ________ is often considered the "dispensable" sense, the one we could most easily live without if necessary.
  62. Hertz is a unit of measurement of ________.
  63. Optical illusions result from distortions in ________.
  64. Light energy stimulating neurons in the retina is an example of ________.
  65. Harry steps into his kitchen to find his father cooking bacon and eggs for the family's breakfast. The unique smells of the bacon and the eggs register in the receptor cells in ________.
    the nasal cavity
  66. According to McBurney and Collings, the average threshold for human taste is approximately 1 gram of table salt in ________ liters of water.
  67. Alice is walking home from school when she notices a change in the weather coming. She hears thunder in the distance, sees lightning and dark clouds approaching, feels the wet breeze of an approaching storm, and even smells the difference in the wind from the storm. Alice is able to organize all of these sensory cues into a meaningful idea due to her powers of ________.
  68. A young man enters a completely darkened room and lights a candle. Which of the following sequences best represents the path of the candle's light as it enters his eye?
    cornea, pupil, lens, retina
  69. Stimuli with strong, clear contours in which we perceive figure and ground in two different ways, shifting back and forth, are called ________ figures.
  70. There are approximately ________ odor-detecting cells located high in each nasal cavity.
    12 million
  71. Recent discoveries indicate that the brain produces opiates or narcotic-like pain-blocking neurotransmitters collectively known as ________.
  72. Hue is to vision as ________ is to hearing.
  73. The amount of pain with which people can cope is called pain ________.
  74. The rods and cones in the retina are ________.
    receptor cells
  75. The amount of light entering the eye is controlled by the ________.
  76. The type of ESP involving knowledge of someone else's thoughts or feelings is known as ________.
  77. ________ is the mental process of sorting, identifying, and arranging the raw data of experience into meaningful patterns.
    ) Perception
  78. ________ are the raw data of experience.
  79. Jane jumps out of bed to the sound of her alarm clock. As she reaches her feet, she feels very dizzy for a few seconds. As her system readjusts to her standing, she begins to regain her sense of balance. The source of Jane's dizziness is probably in the ________ senses.
  80. The physical stimuli for the sense of hearing are called ________ waves.
  81. When something occurs below our level of awareness, it is said to occur ________.
  82. Receptor cells in the retina responsible for color vision are ________.
  83. The ________ of the tongue is most sensitive to sourness.
  84. In Michigan, an outdoor temperature of 45 degrees feels cold in July but warm in January. This is an example of ________.
  85. On the average, people dream ________.
    several times a night
  86. Which of the following is NOT an altered state of consciousness?
  87. Sleep researchers advise those suffering from insomnia that when they cannot fall asleep, get out of bed and engage in unrelated activities until they get sleepy again.
  88. George suffers from sleep apnea. He is likely to experience all of the following EXCEPT ________.
    muscle-tone loss after expressions of emotion
  89. We spend about one-________ of our lives sleeping.
  90. ________ are chemicals that retard behavior by either speeding up or slowing down nerve impulses.
  91. "Ecstasy," "grievous bodily harm," and "special K" are all examples of ________ drugs.
  92. ________ called dreams the "royal road to the unconscious."
  93. Various methods of concentration, reflection, or focusing of thoughts that reduce activity of the sympathetic nervous system are ________.
  94. Our awareness of various mental processes such as making decisions, daydreaming, reflecting, and concentrating is called ________.
  95. Which of the following is NOT an altered state of consciousness?
    A) meditation
    B) daydreaming
    C) intoxication
    D) concentration
    D) concentration
  96. Each of the following has been reported by researchers studying the effects of meditation EXCEPT ________ among users.
    A) a reduction in functional complaints c
    B) increased peace of mind
    C) increased usage of recreational drugs
    D) increased sensory awareness
    C) increased usage of recreational drugs 
  97. If you study hard during the week and then stay up all night on Friday and Saturday, you are likely to ________.
    remember much less of the material than if you had spent a more restful weekend
  98. ________ the most common alteration of normal consciousness.
    Dreams are
  99. Greg's job at an automobile assembly plant requires him to work a rotating shift. The constantly shifting work schedule is MOST likely to cause him to ________.
    have sleep difficulties
  100. There is a link between sleep and ________.
    both asthma and stroke
  101. A biological cycle, or rhythm, that is approximately 24 hours long is a(n) ________ cycle.
  102. Albert is meditating. The type of meditation he practices requires a combination of prayer and frenzied dancing. He is practicing ________.
  103. Which of the following chemicals has been found to play a crucial role in our need for sleep?
  104. The hallmark of normal waking consciousness is the highly selective nature of attention.
    a. True
    b. False
  105. In paradoxical sleep, brain activity, heart rate, and blood pressure closely resemble waking consciousness, but the sleeper ________.
    appears to be deeply asleep and is incapable of moving
  106. Chemical substances that changes people's moods, perceptions, and mental functioning are known as ________ drugs.
  107. Nightmares occur primarily in ________ sleep.
  108. A substance found in milk that promotes sleep is ________.
  109. The phenomenon of “temporal disintegration” is most closely associated with the use of which of the following drugs?
  110. If a person is paid at the end of each work day, the reinforcement schedule would be ________.
  111. A budding author wishes to improve her typing. Which of the following would be LEAST helpful in a program to help her reach her goal?
    A) giving herself reinforcement each time she consistently improves in either speed or accuracy
    B) deciding on specific improvements she wishes to make in speed and accuracy
    C) keeping a careful record of her current rates of speed and accuracy
    D) punishing herself whenever she fails to achieve the goals she has set for herself
    punishing herself whenever she fails to achieve the goals she has set for herself
  112. The process by which experience or practice results in a relatively permanent change in behavior or potential behavior is known as ________.
  113. We associate the name ________ most closely with classical conditioning.
    Ivan Pavlov
  114. An example of a behavior that is learned through operant conditioning is ________.
    cleaning up your room to get your parents' approval
  115. The type of learning in which reflexive behaviors that would automatically follow one type of stimulus are elicited by different, formerly neutral stimuli, is called ________.
    classical conditioning
  116. Which of the following is a secondary reinforcer?
    A) a bar of candy
    B) a drink of water
    C) money
    D) warm, physical contact
    C) money
  117. In the experiment with Little Albert, the unconditioned stimulus was the ________.
    loud noise
  118. In ________ conditioning, new behaviors can build on previously established ones.
    both operant and classical
  119. Gloria, the star in the school play, must cry when her “father” tells her to leave home. During rehearsal, Gloria holds an onion near her eyes when her “father” tells her to leave. The onion serves as the ________ while being told to “leave home” is the ________.
    US; CS
  120. A girl learns that whenever her older brother shares his cookie with her, her mother gives him a piece of candy. The girl's learning is ________.
    social learning theory
  121. Which of the following statements is true?
    A) In classical conditioning, the learning occurs at about the same pace no matter how far apart the pairings of the CS and US are
    . B) In classical conditioning, the learning takes place most quickly if the pairings of the CS and US are separated by a moderate amount of time.
    C) In classical conditioning, the learning takes place most quickly if the pairings of the CS and US are separated by a very long time.
    D) In classical conditioning, the learning takes place most quickly if the pairings of the CS and US follow each other very rapidly.
    In classical conditioning, the learning takes place most quickly if the pairings of the CS and US follow each other very rapidly.
  122. Intense, irrational fears of particular things, activities, or situations are called ________.
  123. The idea that in conditioning, the conditioned stimulus must signify that if one thing occurs, something else is likely to occur, is part of ________ theory.
    ) operant conditioning
  124. Learning that depends on mental processes that are not directly observable is called ________ learning.
  125. A key to social learning theory is ________.
    observational learning
  126. Pairing the conditioned stimulus and the unconditioned stimulus on only a portion of the learning trials is called ________.
    intermittent pairing
  127. The process by which experience or practice results in a relatively permanent change in behavior or potential behavior is known as ______.
  128. A researcher trains a little boy to fear a rabbit by making a loud, frightening noise every time the boy approaches the rabbit. This type of learning is known as ________.
    classical conditioning
  129. Social learning theory's foremost proponent is ________.
  130. Biofeedback is an application of ________.
    operant conditioning
  131. Emitted, voluntary behavior is BEST modified by ________.
    operant conditioning
  132. Spontaneous, voluntary behaviors that you engage in by choice are called ________ behaviors.
  133. Mary Cover Jones first demonstrated that children's fears can be ________.
    unlearned through classical conditioning 
  134. The mental image of an area, such as a maze or the floor plan of a building, is called a ________.
    cognitive map
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