1. What are the two most important macrominerals for a horse?
    Ca and P
  2. What are the essential macro minerals? what are their functions? What are they measured in?
    • Ca, P, Mg, K, Na, Cl, S
    • g/kg or %
    • Body structure
    • acid/base balance
    • fluid balance
    • nerve conductivity
    • muscle contraction
  3. What are the essential Micro minerals and their functions and how are they measured?
    • Cu, Zn, Fe, I, Se, Mn
    • ppm or mg/kg
    • need in very small amounts
    • components of enzymes
    • wide spread biological reactions
    • multiple fxns
  4. What are the minor trace minearls?
    • Flourine
    • Chromium
    • Nickel
    • Molybdenum
    • Arsenuc
    • Silicon
    • Boron
  5. What are tge functions of Calcium (Ca)
    • -99% if Ca in the body is found in bone and teeth
    • 1% if Ca in soft tissue where it is involved in muscle activity, blood clotting and enzyme activation
  6. What are the functions of phosphorus?
    • 80% of P is in bones
    • Used in E metabolism (ATP)
    • Influences reproduction
    • (metabolic fxns will draw from bone)
  7. What are the Ca/P interelated functions?
    • main components of bone
    • required for growth and maintenance of healthy bone
    • Ratio is important
    • -Ca must be higher than P
    • -Imbalance affects calcium absorption
    • -Foals = 1.2:1 to 3:1, others 2:1 to 5:1
    • (mares may be in heat but might not show because of a lack of P.   Blood levels are always maintained.   excess P is worse than excess Ca)
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