Nutrition Exam I

  1. six nutrition conponents
    minerals, water, fats, protein, vitamin, cards
  2. Bile
    produce in the liver
  3. most Americans consume adequate
  4. peristalsis
    churning action that propels food down the tract
  5. simplest form
  6. all food turn to
  7. metabolism of glucose
    from carbohydrate
  8. metabolism of fatty acids, glycerol, mono and diglycerol
    from fatlipid food
  9. metabolism of amino acid
    from protein food
  10. steatorrhea ( fatty stools ) occurs when
    fatty acids are not absorbed
  11. metabolism
    energy obtained from calories
  12. major source of energy and fiber
  13. green bananas
    have increased starch, but convert to sugar as they aged
  14. corn
    has increased sugar but converts to starch as it ages
  15. complex CHO ( polysaccharides )
    • primarily starch and cellulose (fiber)
    • found in breads, vegetables, and cereals
  16. the goal of digesting carbs
  17. monosaccharides
    • simplest form of carbohydrate
    • 3 important monosaccharides : glutose, frutose, galactose
  18. honey
    • dexotose (blood sugar)
    • honey contributes simple sugar
  19. main source of energy for the CNS (central nervous system)
  20. Nutrition def.
    injest, digest, absorb, transport, utilize, disqueeze
  21. provide energy/kcal
    protein, fats, carbs
  22. iatrogenic malnutrition
    a nutrition disease resulting from Medical Treatment to a patient with drugs, surgery, or dipudict diet
  23. example of Iatrogenic Malnutrition
    anticonvulsants increase need for folic acid
  24. supplements greater or equal to 150 RDA
    megadosing which maybe toxic
  25. Peristalsis begins in
  26. Disaccharides
    • Sucrose = glucose + fructose (table sugar)
    • Lactose = glucose + galactose
    • Maltose = glucose + glucose
  27. Sucrotose 100% found in
    table sugar and granulated sugar
  28. table sugar and granulated sugar are examples of
    simple carbs
  29. Lactose
    milk sugar
  30. lactose intolerance caused by
    lactase insufficiency
  31. polysaccharides are considered
    starches and fiber
  32. other terms for fiber
    cellulose, gums, pectins
  33. glucose is stored as
  34. glycogen is stored in the
    liver and muscle
  35. human don't have the enzyme to break fiber/cellulose down
    so it is not absorbed
  36. ideal fiber per day
    20 - 35 g fiber per day
  37. too much fiber resulting
    decreased nutrient absorption
  38. food sources of fiber
    fruits, vegetables, nuts, seeds, wholegrains
  39. 2 types of fiber
    • insoluble fiber
    • soluble fiber
  40. insoluble fiber may lower the risk of
    calon cancer and diverticulosis
  41. soluble fiber may lower
    cholesterol level
  42. goal fiber per day
    at least 3g per 100 calories from CHO food
  43. sugar / starch kcal
    1 g CHO (starch/sugar) = 4 kcal
  44. fiber kcal
    1g fiber = 0 kcal
  45. 15 g Carbs kcal
    60 kcal
  46. Consequences of Low CHO free diet
    lose sodium, potassium, and water which accounts for weight loss and weakness
  47. (abnormal) fat must be used as primary source of energy resulting

    • symptoms of ketosis
    • fatigue, dehydration, and loss of energy
  48. sugar substitutes
    • aspartame
    • saccharide
    • splenda
    • stevia
  49. aspartame
    nutrisweet (equal)
  50. side affects of aspartame
    • nausea
    • dizzyness
    • headaches
    • insomnia
    • mentural inregularities
    • CNS problems
    • and more
  51. saccharide
  52. splenda
    sucrolose tend to make you hungry
  53. stevia
    no more than 2 packets/teaspoons per day
  54. alcohol/ethanol
    • water soluble
    • Requires NO Digestion
  55. alcohol kcal
    1 g alcohol = 7 kcal
  56. characteristics of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome
    slow infant growth, small head/body, distorted facial features, mental retardation (low IQ)
  57. higher fat consumption increases the risk of Cancer by
    promoting cell division
  58. American Heart Association suggests we get kcal from fat
    30% kcal from fat
  59. Glycerol is common to all
  60. saturated fats
    have 2 hydrogen atoms attached to each carbon in the fatty acid chain
  61. saturated fat increases the risk of
    heart disease
  62. examples of saturated fats
    animal fats (meat, dairy), tropical oil, hydrogenated veg. oil (trans fat)
  63. fatty acid
    • saturated fats
    • monounsaturated fats
    • poly/unsaturated fats
  64. meat
    saturated fat
  65. dairy cheese butter yogurt milk
    saturated fat
  66. monounsaturated fats
    lacks 2 hydrogen atoms
  67. best fat
    monounsaturated fat
  68. examples of monounsaturated fats
    olive oil, canola oil, nuts/nut oil (peanut oil)
  69. olive oil
    monounsaturated oil
  70. canola oil
    monounsaturated oil
  71. nuts oil
    monounsaturated oil
  72. nuts
    monounsaturated oil
  73. poly/unsaturated fats
    lacks many hyfrogen atoms
  74. poly/unsaturated fats
    increase the need of antioxidant
  75. examples of poly/unsaturated fats
    all other vegetable oil
  76. corn oil
    unsaturated oil
  77. cotton seed oil
    unsaturated oil
  78. food industry hydrogenates liquid fat to decrease spoilage which increase
    shelf life
  79. hydrogenation
    margin, store bought cookies, shortening, commercially prepared peanut butter
  80. brownie
  81. skippy jiff
  82. essential fatty acid (must be provided by the diet)
    • Linoleic acid
    • Linolenic acid
  83. omega 3 fats
    lower risk of disease by decreasing inflammation
  84. examples of omega 3 fats
    salmon, flax, walnuts
  85. cholesterol only found in
    dietary animal fats
  86. functions of cholesterol
    • precusor of Vitamin D
    • needed for the formation of hormones, bile salts, and body membranes in all cells
  87. Olestra
    Food and Drug Administration(FDA) approved fat substitute
  88. physical properties of fat
    • insoluble in water
    • less dense than water
    • may burn in high temperatures
    • becomes rancid (spoiled)
  89. HDL
    healthy choledterol
  90. LDL
    lousy cholesterol
  91. HDLs function
    are responsible for returning lipids from the body to the liver, thereby decreasing risk of atherosclerosis
  92. Lipids
    • are transported in the blood as lipoproteins
    • HDLs and LDLs
    • chylomicrons
    • fat bound to protein
  93. fat kcal
    1 g fat = 9 kcal
  94. atherosclerosis
    lipids and other materials that form plaque narrows / clogs the arteries
  95. to increase HDLs
    • decrease smoking
    • increase exercise
    • increase fiber
    • increase monounsaturated fat
    • decrease trans fat (from saturated fat)
    • decrease overall fat = decrease risk of heart attack and stroke
  96. functions of lipids
    • source of energy
    • high satiety value (make us feel full)
    • carrier of fat soluble vitamins (A D E K)
    • palatability (good taste)
    • energy reserve
    • precursor of prostaglandins (hormone-like substabces)
    • insulation (keep us warm)
    • protection of vital body organs
  97. kcal?
    10 g CHO
    1 g fiber
    3 g alcohol
    8 g fat
    133 kcal
  98. most common monosacchride?
  99. only way to eat cholesterol
    animal fats
  100. carbohydrate
    • high fiber
    • low sugar
  101. the remaining mass in the large intestine
    fiber and water
  102. anabolism
    • for energy
    • build body compounds and storing material
  103. catabolism
    • for movement
    • products of digestion are broken down further for energy
  104. protein in
    muscle, skin, bone, hormone, hemoglobin, antibodies
  105. Def of essential nutrient
    Must be consumed in the diet because it cannot be synthesized by the body
  106. Essential nutrient's job
    • Provide energy
    • Promotes growth
    • Regulates body process
  107. Protein kcal
    1 g protein = 4 kcal
  108. Protein is synthesized by units called
    Amino acid (CHON)
  109. Essential amino acid
    Body can not synthesized the protein at a rate sufficient to meet the needs of growth (must get through diet)
  110. non-essential amino acid
    can be synthrsized by the body
  111. complete protein
    animal protein from the milk and meat group
  112. incomplete protein
    plant protein from vegetable and grain (starchy) group
  113. complete protein contains
    all essential amino acid
  114. incomplete ptotein
    lackd or has limited amounts of one or more essential amino acid
  115. complementary proteins
    • peanut butter and bread
    • rice and beans
    • rice and vegetables, sprouts, salads
  116. types of vegetarianism
    • vegan - consume only plants
    • ovovegetarian - plants and eggs
    • lactovegetarian - plant and dairy
    • ovolactovegetarian - plant, egg, and dairy
  117. vegan
    only plant
  118. ovovegetarian
    plant and egg
  119. lactovegetarian
    plant and dairy
  120. ovolactovegetarian
    plant, egg, dairy
  121. functions of protein
    • formation of essential body compounds (hormones, enzymes)
    • regulation of water balance
    • maintenance of body neutrality (pH)
    • antibody formation
    • transport nutrients
  122. protein for infants
    2 - 2.5 g protein per killogram
  123. ptotein for teens/body builders
    1 - 1.5 g protein per kg
  124. protein for adults
    0.75 - 0.80 g protein per kg
  125. Protein Calorie Malnutrition PCM
    • Kwashiorkor
    • Marasmus
  126. Kwashiorkor
    protein defficiency only
  127. Marasmus
    protein and calorie defficiency
  128. Positive nitrogen balance occurs during
    infancy, childhood, adolescence, pregnancy, in individuals increasing muscle mass, and in people recovering from illness
  129. what determines protein needs
    nitrogen balance studies
  130. in starvation, if kcal intake is too low
    protein from muscle may be used as energy
  131. the nonnitrogenous portion is converted to glucose and provides energy, excess is stored ss
    glycogen or fat
  132. nitrogen is removed, occurs during
  133. enzymes, known as Protease , break down protein into simple units of Amino Acid ; otherwise, they are too large to be absorbed.
  134. at least 300 kcals fuels the brain for
    4 - 5 hrs
  135. why vitamin, minerals, water don't provide energy
    they don't have kcal
  136. hyperglycemia
    lower insulin produce, the hyperglycemia remains
  137. symptoms of lactose intolerance
    • bloating
    • gaseousness
    • diahhrea
    • nausea
    • abdominal pain
    • after eating dairy EXCEPT cheese and yorgurt
  138. tropical oil
    saturated fat
  139. palm oil
    saturated fat
  140. coconut oil
    saturated fat
  141. bile is stored in
  142. Cholesterol is the precursor of vitamin
  143. how lipid is absorbed
    • mono and diglycerides, fatty acids, glycerol cross the intestinal wall
    • recombine in the lymphatic system
    • tranported to the liver
  144. cholesterol free
    < 2 mg cholesterol per serving
  145. NLEA
    • Nutrition Labeling Education Act
    • federal law allowing health claims on food labels
  146. all information on the food label based on
    1 serving
  147. daily value
    percentage out of 100% RDI of a 2000 kcal diet
  148. advantages of being vegetarians
    • proper kcals
    • lower fat
    • lower saturated fat
    • higher monounsaturated fat
    • higher fiber
    • lower dietary cholesterol ( animal fat )
  149. proteins serve as buffers to neutralize acid or base
    • Gastrin secreted in stomach to increase acidity
    • Secretin secreted in small intestine to decrease acidity
  150. gastrin
    in stomach to increase acidity
  151. secretin
    in small intestine to decrease acidity
  152. deamination
    deamination - N is temoved
Card Set
Nutrition Exam I