state and local govt

  1. Articles of Confederation
    • - first U.S. constitution, which served as a bridge between the initial government by the Continental Congress of the Revolutionary period and the federal government provided under the U.S. Constitution.
    • - were ineffective at maintaining the sovereignty of the nation
  2. At large Elections
    • - antiparty progressive era reform designed to weaken the influence of political parties and the lower status voters. 
    • - were sold as "good Government" in part for their ability to get working class ethnics, blacks and socialists off of city councils.
  3. Bill of Rights
    • - the first 10 amendments to the U.S. Constitution
    •  constitute a collection of mutually reinforcing guarantees of individual rights and limitations on federal and state governments.
    • was to ensure the protection of individuals from the national government, however, it also preserves the autonomy of the states.
  4. Block Grants
    • Utilized during periods of Centralization 
    • during the 1960's congress used these to spread a wide swath of programs across the United States
  5. Categorical Grants
    Enticed state governments to participate in federal programs through coercion... eg. you do this and you get the money
  6. Clean Money
    occur when political campaigns are funded by public money, rather than private donations or holdings
  7. Coercive Federalism
    • Growth of the federal government from 1960-1972
    • Congress sought to relieve growing social pressures found across the states by expanding social welfare programs including those intending to reduce urban and
    • rural poverty and eradicate public school inequalities
    • 1964 Civil rights act
    • 1965 Voting rights act
    • Mid 1960's congress created medicare and medicaid
  8. Commerce Clause
    Gives congress the power to regulate commerce with foreign nations and among the states.
  9. Comparative Method
    range of differences among the states and communities that help explain how politics and public policy work.
  10. Confederal System
    • is a system in which the national government is subject to the control of subnational autonomous governments
    • This system allows local leaders to better provide for the needs and wishes of the citizenry
  11. Constitutions
    • the basic charters that establish major insititutions and governing principles of both state and local government.
    • Regulates institutions such as power of the governors, the state legislatures, and the court system
    • establish specific public policy
  12. Cumulative Voting
    offer minority candidates more opportunities to win than standard at large elections
  13. Devolution
    is the decentralization of power and authority from a central government to state or local governments
  14. Direct Democracy
     is a form of democracy in which people vote on policy initiatives directly, as opposed to a representative democracy in which people vote for representatives who then vote on policy initiatives.
  15. Early Voting
    • is the process by which electors can vote on a single or series of days prior to an election.
    • can take place remotely, such as by mail, or in person, usually in designated polling stations.
    • The goal of this is to increase participation.
  16. Efficacy
    is the sense that political involvement can actually make a difference
  17. Federalism
    • is the structural or Constitiutional relationship between a national government and its constitutive states.
    • combines the powers of the national government with the diversity of subnational governments.
  18. Federalist Papers
    A series of essays promoting the ratification of the U.S. Constitution
  19. Full Faith and Credit Clause
    states that the states must mutually accept one anothers public acts, records, and judicial proceedings.
  20. Individualistic Political Culture
    • these people sought their fortunes through business and hard work. But didn’t have a problem with government helping a person achieve his or her own personal economic goals.
    • Political machines grew up in these areas to help immigrants transition into american life and a little political corruption was tolerated at the price of making government work
    • Continues to influence places like New Jersey, Illinois, and Ohio
  21. Initiative
    • is a means by which a petition signed by a certain minimum number of registered voters can force a public vote.
    • The vote may be on a proposed statute, constitutional amendment, charter amendment or ordinance.
    • It is a form of direct democracy.
  22. Intergovernmental Relations
    • Relations are the interactions among the federal government, state governments and local governments.
    • A federalist system of intergovernmental relations joins a national government with semiautonomous  subnational government but allows each to retain its own identitiy and distinctiveness
  23. Judicial Review
    • is the doctrine under which legislative and executive actions are subject to review (and possible invalidation) by the judiciary.
    • Specific courts with judicial review power must annul the acts of the state when it finds them incompatible with a higher authority (such as the terms of a written constitution).
    • Judicial review is an example of the separation of powers in a modern governmental system.
  24. Majority-Minority Districts
    • United States congressional district in which the majority of the constituents in the district are racial or ethnic minorities.
    • Majority-minority districts are often the result of racial gerrymandering.
  25. Majority Tyranny
    • a scenario in which decisions made by a majority place its interests so far above those of an individual or minority group as to constitute active oppression, comparable to that of tyrants and despots.
    • In many cases a disliked ethnic, religious or racial group is deliberately penalized by the majority element acting through the democratic process.
  26. Moralistic Political Culture
    The general and informal set of beliefs and attitudes that politics in a state or community is intended to enhance the public good and for the uplifting of the have-nots of society
  27. National Supremacy Clause
    • Stipulates that the U.S. Constitution and national laws and treaties shall be the supreme law of the land. 
    • Trumps state and local governments
  28. Necessary and Proper Clause
    • Grants congress discretion in its interpretation of its powers.
    • Congress's implied powers give the national legislative body authority to make all laws that will be necessary for executing its power
  29. Multimember Districts
    • Legislative districts that elect more than one representative. 
    • Some state legislative districts, and many local councils, have more than one representative elected per district
  30. Literacy tests
    • Post civil-war rules that denied blacks the vote. were designed to be too difficult for most people to pass. 
    • test asked people to interpret passages of the Constitution and allowed local officials the discretion to judge if answers were right or wrong
  31. Nonpartisan elections
    an election where candidates have no party labels and all voters can participate
  32. partisan elections
    an election that decides a party's nominee for the general election
  33. nullification
    • A constitutional theory, advanced by John C. Calhoun and other advocates of states rights. 
    • espoused the right of a state to declare null and void a law passed by the U.S. Congress that the state found to be unconstitutional and disagreeable
  34. Participation Bias
    • The difference between the general population of elegible voters and the people who actually participate in elections. 
    • exists if participants are substantially different from nonparticipants
  35. Political Culture
    • What people in a group or region generally believe about government and politics
    • what people think the government ought to do and how people should act towards it
  36. poll taxes
    A tax or fee that must be paid in order to secure the right to register or vote
  37. Populist Party
    • An American political party that flourished during the 1890's 
    • Called for political reforms including direct democracy, direct election or the U.S. Senate and direct election of the president
  38. Preemption
    • occurs when the federal government takes regulatory action that overrides state laws
    • Since the mid 90's congress has curtailed state regulatory authority in areas such as food safety, health care, telecommuniication, international trade, and financial services. 
  39. Progressive Era
    • A period of political change and reform during the early decades of the 20'th century.
    • Hoped to reform politics by limiting the power of corporations and political parties
  40. Proposition 13
    • A constitutional initiative approved by California voters in the late 1970's.
    • One of the first major antitax initiatives
    • Froze property values and limited future increases in property tax values
    • credited with setting an antitax mood that helped to propel Ronald Reagan to the White house
  41. Public Goods
    Policies or actions providing broad benefits rather than narrow benefits to a specific group
  42. Racial Gerrymandering
    Drawing boundaries for legislative districts on the basis of race
  43. Recall
    • A vote to remove an elected official from public office
    • Recall proposals qualify if sufficient signatures are collected
  44. Referendum
    •  a form of direct democracy
    •  a direct vote in which an entire electorate is asked to either accept or reject a particular proposal, usually a piece of legislation which has been passed into law by the local legislative body and signed by the pertinent executive officials
  45. Reserve Clause
    • The Powers not delegated t the United States by the Constitution nor prohibited by it to the states are reserved to the states respectively or to the people
    • The states are not administrative arms of the national government but rather constituent parts that retain their autonomy from the central government
  46. Socio-economic Status
    an economic and sociological combined total measure of a person's work experience and of an individual's or family’s economic and social position in relation to others, based on income, education, and occupation
  47. Single Subject Rule
    Rules that require an initiative address only one question or issue. 
  48. Social Capital
    Networks or trust and reciprocity built from participation in voluntary social groups
  49. Traditionalistic Political Culture
    The General and informal set of beliefs and attitudes that politics in a state or community is the domain of social and economic elites and that the have-nots ought not to get involved in politics
  50. Unfunded Mandate
    a statute or regulation that requires a state or local government to perform certain actions, with no money provided for fulfilling the requirements
  51. Unitary System
    A system of governance with a strong central government that controls virtually all aspects of its constitutive sub-national governments
  52. Voting age population
    All U.S. residents age 18 and over
  53. Voting eligible population
    All U.S. Citizens age 18 and over who are not excluded from voter eligibility due to criminal status such as felony convictions, incarceration or parole or due to being declared incompetent to vote
  54. Voting Rights act
    A law passed by congress in 1965 designed to remove racial barriers to voting. The original law gave the federal government authority over local voter registration procedures in several southern states
  55. Wedge Issue
    Controversial issues placed for a public vote via the initiative or referendum process by one political party or group with the goal of dividing candidates and supporters of a rival party or group
  56. Winner Take all election
    When a single person represents a jurisdiction or just one person can win an elected position the candidate with the most votes is elected
  57. McCulloch vs. Maryland
    • Since "the power to tax is the power to destroy," Maryland's action violated Congress's "implied powers" in the constitution to establish and operate a national bank.
    • The overall significance was that the case strengthened the implied power's clause, which is in Article 8 section 1 of the US constitution (it basically says that powers not explicitly stated in the constitution are still the power of the federal government if it's implied.)
    • Basically it strengthened the federal government.
Card Set
state and local govt
govt exam