1. Homeostasis
    • Homeostasis: body’s attempt to
    • maintain a constant internal environment; involves three parts or mechanisms:

  2. 3 parts of homeostasis
    • ·        
    • Receptor-
    • detects change in the environment; sends message to control center

    • ·        
    • Control
    • center- determines what needs to be done and sends message to effector

    • ·        
    • Effector
    • – performs some function to return environment to balanced state
  3. Negative Feedback
    Negative Feedback – the action of the effector reverses the direction of change; stabilizing effect

    • ·     Temperature regulation –
    • body senses COLD, feedback causes shivering which causes the body to WARM up
  4. Positive Feedback
    • Positive Feedback - the action of the
    • effector enhances the direction of change;
    • destabilizing effect

    • ·    
    • Contractions during pregnancy – contractions stimulate
    • release of oxytocin, which causes to increase strength of contractions until
    • baby is born
  5. Pleural Cavity
    surrounds lungs
  6. pericardial cavity
    surrounds the heart
  7. cranial cavity
    houses the brain
  8. dorsal body
    subdivided into the cranial and vertebral cavity
  9. vertebrae cavity
    runs through the vertebral clumn and encloses the spinal cord
  10. serous cavities
    enclosed body cavities with no openings to the external surface of the body
  11. peritoneal cavity
    surrounds abdominopelvic viscera
  12. chemical
    includes atoms, molecules, biological macromolecules
  13. cells
    smallest living thing
  14. tissues
    • a group of different types of cells that work together
    • 4 types; epithelium, connective, muscular, nervous
  15. Organs
    are discrete structure made up of more than one tissue and are responsible for a function that no other organ can perform
  16. Organism
    Fully functional entity that is the result of all the lower levels working together
  17. 4 Biological Macromolecules
    • Protein
    • Carbohydrates
    • Lipids
    • Nucleic Acids
  18. Protein 
    • made of 20 different amino acids
    • Examples; enzymes, antibodies, hair, silk, Insulin
    • Function: transport structural support, defense
    • Location: cell nucleus, blood, tissue
  19. Carbohydrates
    • made of simple sugars
    • Example glucose; fructose; glycogen
    • Function; energy source and storage
    • Location: cells, live, cell wall, exoskeleton
  20. Lipids
    • made of faccy acids glycerol
    • examples: fats, steroids
    • Function: energy storage, hormones
    • Location; cell membrane, blood, fat cells
  21. Nucleic Acids
    • made of nucleotides
    • Examples: DNA tRNA
    • Function: store and transmit, heredity, information, carrier of genetic
    • Location: cell nucleus, cell cytoplasm
  22. 12 organ systems
    • Integumentary
    • Skeletal
    • Digestive
    • Urinary
    • Urinary
    • Reproductive(male)
    • Reproductive(Female)
    • Muscular
    • Nervous
    • Endoctrine
    • Cardiovascular
    • Immune
    • Respiratory
  23. Integumentary
    • cells: Keratinocytes; Basal cell
    • Structure; skin, hair nails
    • Function: external body covering; sweat and oil glands
    • Disorders: Burns; skin cancer
  24. Skeletal
    • cells: Osteoclasts
    • Structure: Bones; Joints, tendons, ligaments
    • Function: Protects and supports organs, movement , stores minerals
    • Disorders: Ricketts
  25. Digestive
    • Cells: Parietal cells, Absorptive cells
    • Structure: Stomach, esophagus; anus, pancreas
    • Function: Breaks down food
    • Disorders: Intestinal obstruction
  26. Urinary
    • Cells: Podocytes, tubule cells
    • Structure: Kidneys; Urinary Bladder
    • Functions: Eliminates nitrogenous waste, regulates water & salt
    • Disorders UTI, bladder cancer
  27. Reproductive (Male)
    • Cells: Spermatocytes,sperm
    • Structure: Testes, penis, prostate
    • Functions; generates sperm, secretes sex hormones
    • Disorders: Prostate cancer
  28. Reproductive Female
    • cells: Ova, Follicular cells
    • Structure: Uterus, Ovaries, Fallopian tubes
    • Function: Generates ove, area for fetus to develop, secrete sex hormones
    • Disorders: cervical cancer, breast cancer
  29. Muscular
    • cells: cardiac muscle, skeletal muscle
    • Structure: Muscles
    • Functions: manipulation of envi, facial expressions; Locomotion
    • Disorders: Muscular dystrophy, sprains, finromyalgia
  30. Nervous
    • cells: Neurons, astrocyte; Microglia
    • Structure: Brain, spinal cord, Peripheral ns
    • Functions: control and communication; sensory input
    • Disorders; Multiple sclerosis, alzheimer's, shingles
  31. Endocrine
    • Cells: Acinar, Pancreatic beta cells, Mammotropic
    • Structure: Pancreas, Thyroid gland, Pituitary, Thymus
    • Functions: Regulate growth, regulate reproduction
    • Disorders: gigantism, acromegaly
  32. Cardiovascular
    • cells: monocytes, cardiac muscle, basophils
    • Structure: Heart, veins, arteries, blood, capillaries
    • Functions: Transport blood, oxygen/carbon dioxide
    • Disorders; Heart failure, coronary artery 
  33. Lymphatic/Immune
    • Cells:T cells, B cells, mast cells, plasma cells
    • Structure:Tonsils, spleen, Thymus, 
    • Functions: Picks up leaked fluid from blood vessels
    • Disorders: Lymphona
  34. Respiratory
    • cells: globlet, clara
    • Structure: nose, nasal cavities; paranasal sinuses, bronchi
    • Functions: Keeps blood oxygenated, removes carbon dioxide
    • Disorders: Lung cancer
  35. Pathology
    study of the disease of the body
  36. Superior
    uppermost, or above
  37. Inferior
    lowermost or below; caudal
  38. Anterior
    toward the front; ventral
  39. Posterior
    toward the back; dorsal
  40. Cephalad; cranial
    toward the head
  41. Medial
    midline of the body; the nose
  42. Lateral
    toward the side or away from the midline of the body
  43. Proximal
    nearest the point of attachment or origin
  44. Protoplasm
    the liquid part of a cell
Card Set
Human body/ biology/ cell structures and functions