Psych Test 2

  1. when do infants grow at the fastest rate than at any other time?
    1st year
  2. weight ____ in first 5 months?
  3. weight ______ by end of the first year?
  4. when do babies lose baby fat?
    1st year
  5. what is the baby fat for on the infant?
    maintaining body temperature
  6. height is more ______ in growth compared to weight
  7. height occurs in ______?
  8. what is cephalocaudal development?
    growth occurs at the top and proceeds downward toward rest of body
  9. what is proximodistal development?
    • growth proceeds from the middle of the body outward
    • ex. arms grow faster than hands
  10. the first _____ occurs between 5-9 months?
  11. what does teething mean?
    first teeth breaking through the skin
  12. symptoms of teething include?
    • saliva production
    • cough
    • rash around mouth
    • putting things in mouth
  13. what are ways to relieve teething pains?
    • teething ring
    • cold wet washcloth
  14. what is a neuron?
    • nerve cell
    • communication in nervous system
  15. what is a synapse?
    space between neurons in one direction
  16. when are almost all neurons created?
  17. in the first two years what happens to the brain development ?
    great increase in growth of neural fibers and synapses (connections)
  18. what is synaptic pruning?
    process in brain development in which dendritic connections that are used become stronger and faster while other whither away
  19. what is myelinazation?
    • myelin sheath growing around axon
    • speeds up the processes in the brain
  20. In brain growth the newborn brain is 30% of ______ brain
  21. In brain growth a 2 year old brain is 70% of ______ brain
  22. periods of rapid development in one area
    ex. vision
    correspond to growth where?
    • related areas of cerebral cortex
    • -occipital lobe
  23. ______ ______ may lead to defiencies in cerebral cortex development
    stimuli deprivation
  24. plasticity is important for the infants brain because it makes it ________
  25. what is the infants brain adaptable to overcome?
  26. ________ deprivation can have permanant effects on infant
    • enviromental
    • ex. romanian orphanages
  27. what were some of the problems that the romanian children had because of the orphanges?
    • no facial processing
    • no stimulation
    • no spatial recongintion
    • no neck strength
  28. what are the two parts of physical development?
    • gross motor skills
    • fine motor skills
  29. what is gross motor skills?
    balance, posture, whole body movements
  30. what are fine motor skills?
    • finely tuned movements
    • intricate movements - grasping toy
  31. what way do infants learn to roll first?
    back to front
  32. what is prereaching?
    make attempts of movement with whole body
  33. By 9 months infants should be able to do what?
    successfully grasp an object that changes direction
  34. what type of motor skill is grasping?
    fine motor
  35. what is the palmer grasp?
    grasping object with palm
  36. what is the ulnar grasp?
    grasping object with thumb and 4 fingers
  37. what is the pincer grasp?
    grasping object with 1st finger and thumb
  38. at 4-5 months an infant should be able to do what with object?
    hold in one hand and explore with other
  39. what is marasmus?
    overall lacking of nutrients
  40. what is kwashiorkor?
    bloated belly
    lack or protein in diet - all carb diet
  41. what is nonorganic failure to thrive?
    • short stature
    • skinny
    • getting nutrition
    • when taken out of situation - rebound is quick
  42. by 2 months infants have an idea of what?
    depth perception
  43. by the time infants can crawl they have ?
    well developed depth perception
  44. improvements in what in the first two years?
  45. around 2-3 months infants prefer what type of patterns?
    pictures of faces
  46. what was Pigat interested in?
    how children develop mental representation
  47. what is a scheme?
    mental representations of how world works
  48. what is assimilation?
    new information make it fit with information already have
  49. what is accomodation?
    information you have doesnt fit with what have - form new scheme
  50. what is sensorimotor stage?
    cognitive thoughts arent being engaged less cognitive process
  51. what are circular reactions?
    repetitive motion completed by child
  52. what are the 6 substages of sensorimotor?
    • reflexative schemes
    • primary circular reaction
    • secondary circular reaction
    • coordination of secodary circular reactions
    • tertiary circular reactions
    • mental representations
  53. what is reflexative schemes?
  54. what is primary circular reaction?
    • children discover and engage in motion
    • enjoy it
  55. what is secondary circular reactions?
    • happen to engage in behavior and find enjoyment
    • - around them
  56. what is coordination of secondary circular reactions?
    • object permanence- conscious effort to repeat
    • AB error - found before therfore will find again
  57. what is tertiary circular reactions?
    a development
  58. what is mental representations?
    • cognitive schemes formed
    • defferred imitation
    • make-believe play
  59. Pigat relied to much on thinking based on motive
    Children develop motor skills when?
    • earlier
    • not stage like
    • discontinuous theory
  60. what is infantile amnesia?
    no memories in infancy
  61. theories as to why there are no memories in infancy?
    • processing ability
    • access to memories
    • language- dont have the words
  62. what are the language milestones?
    • cooing
    • babbling
  63. what is comphrension procedes production?
    understand words being said but cant say words back
  64. early words usually involve?
    • people & objects
    • social words
    • functional words
  65. what is underextensions of language?
    under using words- We go home
  66. what is over extension of words?
    • over using words
    • go-ed
  67. children develop ______ before they develop ______
    • physically
    • verbally
  68. what is the empirist viewpoint
    • conditioning and stimulation
    • BF skinner
    • -but how are words learned
  69. what is the nativist view point?
    • inborn knowledge and capacities
    • chompsky
  70. what is language acquisition?
    preprogrammed to our native language
  71. what is the interactionist perspective?
    • combination of unborn
    • knowledge and learning
  72. cross cultural studies have showed that infants are sensitive to ?
    phonemic constraints
  73. enviromental supports for language learning
    child directed language (motherese)
    • simplified vocab
    • phonological simplication
    • high pitch
    • synatic simplication
  74. what are the expansions of child directed language?
    what are the recasts of child directed language?
    • facilitiates learning expansion
    • correct language rules they have used incorrectly
  75. what is the rouge test? and self reconition
    • usually see themselves as part of caregivers
    • put dot on face if self recognition they touch dot
  76. the development of emotions starts with _____
    • basic emotions - interest, fear, anger
    • present at birth
    • joy/happiness- first with body needs
  77. basic emotions - anger fear
    stranger anxiety
    seperation anxiety
    uncomfortable around certain people

    upset with people they have bonded with when they leave
  78. what are secondary (self-conscious) emotions?
    what are they influenced by?
    • self awareness-
    • embarrasment, empathy
    • socialization
  79. what is social referencing?
    look to another person on how to feel about situation
  80. for emotional regulation young infants need what?
    adults help children by?
    end of second year what is used?
    • soothing
    • rewarding, paying attention to particular emotion
    • use emotion words
  81. what is temperament?
    stable emotional disposition
  82. what are thomas and chess's 3 types of temperament?
    what is difficult associated with?
    • easy
    • difficult
    • slow to warm up
    • later withdrawl and aggression
  83. what type of parenting can change a difficult temperament?
    warm and supportive
  84. what is attatchment?
    strong emotional tie that provides joy and comfort
  85. what would attactment be in history of theories according to:
    • feeling oral stage
    • feeding, operant conditioning
  86. what is myth-harlows feeing studies of rheus baby monkeys?
    • wire bottle mom and soft pillow mom
    • fed from bottle & attatched to soft mom
    • conclusion: vulnerable to other moneys
  87. what is the strange situation testing by Ainsworth?
    • using parent as secure base
    • record:
    • response to parent leaving
    • response to parent coming back
    • response to stranger
  88. reactions of secure attatchment to mother?
    reactions of avoidant attachment to mother?
    reactions of ambivalent attachment to mother?
    reactions of disorganized-disoriented mother?
    • distress of mother leaving
    • no interest in parents
    • very clingy to parent then angry when leave and come back
    • little attention to parent- comfort with stranger
    • Parents leads to type of attachment
  89. what do secure attached infants become?
    what do avoidant attached infants become?
    what do resistant (ambivalent) infants become?
    • leaders
    • associated with aggression
    • later withdrawl- peer victimization
  90. early attachment is believed to influence ____ _____ ____: how relationships function
    internal working models
  91. growth is ____ in early childhood?
  92. what are the major changes of early childhood?
    • taller
    • arm and leg length
    • head more proportional
    • potbelly gone
    • more control of body/balance
  93. what are some gross motor skills that occur at ages
    • run,hop
    • climb stairs
    • gallop, skip
    • run faster
  94. what are some fine motor skills that increase with self-sufficiency?
    • eat with utinsels
    • put on own clothes
    • greater drawing ability
  95. in fine motor skills what is handedness?
    ____ are more left handed than ____
    • which hand is used
    • boys than girls
  96. in gender and physical development boys are?
    in gender and physical development girls are?
    • bigger, greater muscle mass
    • better fine motor development, balance
  97. when to start toilet training?
    • when child can communicate
    • when child show signs of wanting to wear underwear
    • can stay dry thru naps
  98. what is brain lateralization?
    right and left hemisphere processes
  99. what is in the right hemisphere process?
    what is in the left hemisphere process?
    • creativity
    • activity
  100. influences of physical development of the growth hormone can effect?
    stress influences physical development how?
    • physical development
    • interrupts production of growth hormone- may result in deprivation dwarfism= stop growing
  101. nutrition:
    decrease in ______ during preschool years
    should not _____ child to eat certain food
    providing _____ foods helps promote healthy food
    • appetite
    • force
    • nutritious
  102. malnutrition increases the risk for ______
  103. illness is uncomfortable for child but does what ?
    • build up immunities
    • helps understand body
    • learn coping skills
    • develop empathy
  104. largest cause of child mortality in U.S for early childhood?
    factors that contribute?
    what prevents this?
    • injuries
    • negative mood, inattentive, disobident
    • adults!
  105. when children are exposed to toxic levels of this through paint, gas, pipes
    leads to cognitive problems
  106. Pigat: Pre-operative thinking
    great strides in forming _____ _____
    children described more by what they ____ do than what they ____ do
    • mental representations
    • understanding how schemes work
    • cant - can
  107. Limits of childrens thinking
    • centered
    • perception bound
    • irreversibility
  108. limits of childrens thinking of centered?
    perception bound
    focus on states
    • focus on one aspect of object/situation
    • only can see thru there own perception
    • current state- cant see change ex. water to ice
    • cant understand that things can change
  109. children have ___ performance on conservation tasks
  110. types of consevation?
    • number
    • substance
    • length
    • area
    • weight
    • volume
  111. egocentrism?
    • only see world thru their perspective
    • world revolves around them
  112. aspect of egocentrism
    • thoughts and feelings into others or objects
    • dog is hungery- their actually hungry
  113. Pigats preoperational stage is divided into two stages-
    symbolic function
    intuitive thought
    • capable of representational thought and using symbols
    • capable of asking questions and showing curosity
  114. critism of Pigats focus on two main ideas
    • underestimated childrens abilities
    • development is more continuous less stage like
  115. what did Vygotsky focus on?
    social and cultural aspects of cognitive development
  116. what is the zone of Proximal development?
    time frame where they have this ability to learn a skill
  117. what is scaffolding?
    • slowly expose children to info during time of development
    • -slow introduction of knowledge
  118. what are the improvements of mental strategies?
    • attention- greater time spans
    • more planful
    • memory- lack of memory strategies
    • greater use of scripts = step by step understanding of how things work
  119. Understanding of Mental Activity:
    what is metacognition?
    what are false beliefs?
    • thinking about own thinking
    • -preschoolers know their thoughts are their own
    • people can think things that are not true
  120. between ages 2-6 years there is a huge ________ growth
  121. what is fast mapping?
    grammar and age 3
    • occurs when child is exposed only one or two times - learning a new concept after limited exposure
    • at the age of 3 children have mastered simple word order
    • children apply morphemesof language incorrectly - "goed"
    • take 1 meaning of word and use that one meaning
    • use of word to refer to a broader category of things than its meant
  122. what are pragmatics?
    • adjust speech to partner
    • longer conversation sequences
    • pronuciation improves
  123. what are the two perspective sof preschoolers speech?
    • piaget-
    • egocentric speech- whole focus on what they CANT do
    • -due to the inabilit to see/have others perspective

    • Vygotsky-
    • private speech - doesnt focus on inability
    • -imitation of speech of adults
    • speech is self guidance
  124. Self- development

    what is self concept?
    what is self esteem?
    • understanding who they are
    • - preschoolers characterize selfs by: physical appearance
    • their valueing of their characteristics and how they feel about themselves
    • - due to feedback
  125. emotional development:
    early childhood better at ?
    still poor at?
    • identifying causes of emotions
    • connecting thinking to emotions

    • understanding conflict cues
    • determining when expereincing pride, shame and guilt
  126. what is emotional regulation?
    how do preschoolers react to emotional regulation?
    having control of self when feeling emotions

    • restrict sensory input
    • talk to themselves
  127. what is the marshmellow test (Mischel)
    • kid given marshmellow and told to eat it or wait for second one.
    • delay of gratification was related to greater social and academic competence
    • better emotional regulation leads to greater displays of sympathy for others
  128. what is the socio-biological perspective?
    • biological basis of emotions
    • altriusm and prosocial behavior may be prewired
    • prosocial behavior is evolutionary adaptive
  129. what is behaviorsim? - operant conditioning
    • punishment and reward
    • punishment may be unwarrented when immediate threats are present
    • harsh punishment rarely works for long term goals
    • types of punishment that works - time outs
    • -consistancy
    • -warm relationship
    • -rationale provided
  130. what are social learning theories?
    • modeling prosocial behaviors and rewarding those behaviors when children do them
    • greatest influence - preschool
    • more likely to model a warm and responsive adult
    • practice what you preach
  131. Moral development of Pigetian perspective - two stages
    • heteronomous morality
    • autonomous morality
  132. Moral development of Pigetian perspective - two stages
    heternomous morality?
    • set by authority
    • unbreakable
    • more concerned about consequences

    immanent justice- deserve what you get
  133. Moral development of Pigetian perspective - two stages autonomous morality?
    • realizes that laws are created by people
    • more concerned with motivation than consequence
    • start seeing the grey - not black and white
  134. what is sex?
    what is gender?
    what are gender sterotypes?
    what is gender identity?
    what are gender roles?
    • biology
    • psychological characterisitcs
    • commonly held beliefs of what is normal for male and female
    • where you feel - masculine or feminine
    • behaviors and expectations of women and men
  135. 12 month olds are equally interseted in both ?
    at age 4 children can tell you what ?
    stereotypical feminine and masculine toys

    men and women do and can start to describe gender traits
  136. what gender stereotypes do preschoolers hold?
    • toys
    • house hold items
    • behaviors
    • occupation
    • colors
  137. how do children develop a gender role identity?
    children model behaviors that they see their same sex modeling
  138. in gender labeling can they:
    identify own/others gender
    know when boys= men girls = women
    change appearance and not change gender
    • yes
    • no
    • no
  139. is gender stability can they:
    identify own/others gender
    know when boys= men girls = women
    change appearance and not change gender
    • yes
    • yes
    • no
  140. is gender consistancy can they:
    identify own/others gender
    know when boys= men girls = women
    change appearance and not change gender
    • yes
    • yes
    • yes
  141. what does the gender schema theory build off?
    Once identity is established , children pay attention to ?
    • cognitive development theory
    • things that fit theur scheme for gender
  142. what is social coginitve theory?
    • combines social learning theory and gender schema theory
    • children observe and mimic gendered behavior, other reinforce and punish those behaviors
  143. what is gender socialization?
    • taught what is appropriate
    • pink vs. blue
  144. how do peers teach gender socialization?

    gender segregation?
    • responses to gendered behaviors
    • gendered A typical - get picked on
    • gender normative- behavior like gender

    only hang out with same sex
  145. Warmth and Demand
    • high high - high expectations supportive
    • low high - by the book
    • high low - no demand
    • low low - dont care
  146. what are the personality traits of :
    • independent, creative, self assured
    • dependent passive conforming
    • irresponsible conforming immature
    • impulsive behavior problems
  147. what are reciporcal effects?
    • respond to warmness and demandness
    • influence how parents parent
  148. cultures differ on systems of ?
    western culture may emphasize?
    japanese empasizes?
    culture influences?
    • displine for misbehavior
    • authoratative approach including timeout
    • withdrawl of love and shame
    • consequences of displine
  149. physical punishment highlights the imporatance of ?
    culutural context in childrens reponse to parents behavior
  150. importance of play in early childhood which aids in?
    linguistic, cognitive, emotional and social development
  151. gender differences in play?
    • take up alot of space - play in groups
    • imagative play- one on one play
Card Set
Psych Test 2