Biomed module 3

  1. Hydroxyl
    • R-O-H
    •   Alcohols contain an -OH group, which is polar and hydrophilic due to it's electronegative O atom. Molecules with many -OH dissolve easily in water.

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  2. Sulfhydryl
    • R-S-H
    •  Thiols have an -SH group, which is polar and hydeophilic due to it's electronegative S atom. Certain amino acids, the building blocks of proteins, contain -SH groups, which help dtabilize the shape f the proteins.
    • Example
    •   amino acid cysteine.
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  3. Carbonyl
    Keytones contain a carbonyl group within the carbon skeleton. The carbonyl group is polar and hydrophilic due to it's electronegative O atom.

    • R Image Upload 3R       or        
    • RImage Upload 4H
    • Aldehydes Have a carbonyl group at the end of the carbon skeleton.
  4. Carboxyl
    • Carboxylic acids contain a arboxyl group at the end of the carbon skeleton. all amino acids have a -COOH
    • group at one end. The negatively charged form predominates at the pH of body cells and is hydrophilic.

    • Image Upload 5OR                           O
    •                                                                ||
    •                                                               /  \
    •                                                            R   OH
  5. Ester
    •  Ester Predominate in dietary dats and oils and also occur in our body triglycerides. Asprin is an ester of salicylic acid, a pain reliever molecule found in the bark of a willow tree.
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  6. Phosphate
    • Phospheates  contain a a phosphate group (-PO2- 4) which is very hydrophilic due to the dual negative charges.
    • An important example is adenosine riphosphate (ATP), which transfers chemical energy between organic molecules during chemical reactions. (DNA,RNA)
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  7. Amino
    Amines have an -NH2 group, which can as a base and pick up a hydrogen ion, giving the amino group a positive charge. At pH of the body fluids, most amino groups have a charge of 1+. All amino acids have an amino group at one end.

    •                                                      H
    •                                               +    /
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Card Set
Biomed module 3
Major Functional groups