an atom has 17 protons. what charge will its ionic for have?
during the resting potential, sodium ions are concentrated outside of the neuron, which is net negative to the inside. if the sodiu channels open, what will happen?
sodium will flow into the neuron due to the electrical and concentration gradients
T/F action potentials are all or none. a neuron doesn't have weak ones and stronger ones
right behind an advancing action potential, the neuron is
in a refractory period
which of these requires energy from the diet to move ions?
active transport (sodium-potassium pump
T/F during the resting potential, the neuron is net negative to the inside
during the resting potential, potassium is more concentrated inside the neuron than outside. what are the electrical and concentration gradients trying to do to the K+?
electrical gradient trying to move it in to the neuron, concentration gradient out
if both the electrical and concentration gradients are trying to move sodium into the neuron during the resting potential, why doesn;t it move in?
the sudium channels are closed
the sodium-potassium pump
helps restore the resting potential after an action potential
just as a neuron is having an action potential, a scientist artifically starts one at the other end of the axon. what will happen when they meet?
they will stop because they will be moving into refractory period
T/F if a characteristic is due to biology, that means it can not be modified
T/F the heritability of intelligence in siberia is the same as the heritability of intelligence of people in NYC
the heritability of Trait X would be highest in which of these groups?
random babies reared in barrels
the "receiving end" of a neuron
which of these is not a function of glial cells?
sending messages from one area of the brain to another
T/F each neuron possesses a copy of the genetic code as well as waste disposal, manufacturing and transportatio facilities
T/F the brain is estimated to contain about 50 million neurons
the blood-brain barrier is vital because
neurons, for the most part, don't get replaced if they die
T/F neuron shape is related to neuron function
While some substances can pass fairly freely across the blood-brain barrier, others such as glucose must enter by
using energy from the diet to achieve active transport
T/F we can determine "how much" of Joe's schizophrenia is caused by genes and how much is due to environment
T/F that the Y chromosome has only a few genes on it other than those that turn on male development makes men more at risk for recessive disorder determined by genes on the X chromosome
which of these is an example of the multiplier effect:
Joe has the perfect genotype for an athlete; that contributes to his doing well in athletics which makes it more likely that he will seek out experiences that develop the genetically-influenced traits to their fullest
T/F if a characteristic is biologicall based, that means it can not be modified by experience
T/F even though a male and female have the same genotype for a trait, it is possible that tehy will differ on that trait because of the effect of sex hormones
T?F it is easy to determine whether a given characteristic is due to genetics or prenatal environment
T/F recent studies suggest it is possible, at least in some species, for experiece to inactivate a gene and for the inactivated form of that geen to be passed on to offspring
T/F children learn language rather rapidly. if only we could indentify the centers in the brain taht support that learning, the biological psychology of language would be compelte
most biologcal psychologists are dualists- that is, they believe that body and mind are separate realities
T/F scientists udnerstand why we have conscious experience
T/F I alone exist. you are simply a creation of my mind
electrical gradients lead to what movements?
the negatively charged proteins inside the cell
difference in distribution for various ions between the inside and outside
what moves K+ out when neuron is at rest?
what is the advantage of having a resting potential?
the cell is prepared to respond quickly to a stimuls
what is the result if a stimulus shifts the potential inside from the resting potential to a more negative potential?
when it gets closer to zero it is....
what happens to ion gates when the membrane starts to depolarize
sodium gates open
stilumus A depolarizes a neuron just barely above the threshold. stilulus B depolarizes a neuron to 10 mV beyond threshold. what is expected?
stimulus a and be will produce the same result
if depolarization is less than the cell's threshold:
sodium croesses the membrane only slightly more than usual
suppose we applied a drug to a neuron that caused its Na+ gates to suddenly open, what would occure?
a drug would prevent an action potential if it:
blocks movement of sodium across the membrane
all or none states that:
all neuron porduced an action potential of maximum strength or none at all
why would a different message occur?
rate/pattern of action potential is changed
primary feature of a neuron that prevents the action potential from traveling back from where it just passes is the
which feature of a neuron limits the number of action potential it can produce per second?
where do most action potential begin?
the axon hillock
what happens once an action potential starts:
it regenerated at other points along the axon
fuction of the myelin sheath:
increase velocity of transmission
to what does saltatory conduction refer?
transmission alpon myelinated axon
how is a myelinated axon that has lost its myelin different from one that never had one
lacks Na+ gates along parts of its surface
atom has 20 protons, what will the ion charge be?
name and define the 4 factors that allow action potential:
1. selectively permeable membrane
2. concentration gradient
3. electrical gradient
4. Na+-K+ pump
T/F abolitionists maintain that no animals have the same rights as humans
T/F sex limited genes are only on the X and Y chromosomes
at microscopic level, we find 2 kinds of cells:
neurons and glia
a(n) _____ descrives how a structure/behavior develops, including influences of genes, neutrition, experiences ad interactions
a_______explanation would descrie eating in terms of the hypothalamus affecting insulin production, which affects the availability fo those glucose in cells
mapping out the relationship between shared bone structure across different species
fuctional explanation of why giragges have such long necks is that:
allows them greater access to their food supply
recessive genes manifest their effects only when the individual is _____for them
under what condition are sex-limited genes demonstrated?
when particular hormones are present
any estimate of the heredity of a particular trait is specific to:
a given population
to say there is a gene for blue eyes:
genes indirectly produce blue eyes
"reproduction of the fittest"
neither all important nor irrelavent
genes dont directly cause behavior. what do they actually do?
make a person more prone to it, recipes for proteins (affect chemical reactions)
T/F heretability can be computed only for groups, not indivuduals
T/F the heritability of a specific train could be different for different populations.
T/F investigators have found taht nearly every behavior humans display has a significant heritability
can a stressor experienced by grandma rat affect the genetic heritage of Grandbaby rat?
yes. if it is passed on
baby joey is the biological child of a criminal mom. joey is adopted at birth by a good family but nonetheless grows up to be a criminal. can we assume joey's criminal behavior is genetic in origin?
yes, but other factors: environment, neglect, lack of belonging, etc. could also come into play
while genetic factors certainly affect musical ability, it is uite possible that the child with genetically-based music ability that is only somewhat about average to become truly outstanding. how might a slight genetic advantage become a major actual advantage? what is that called
multiplier effect-more prone
identify three factors that make it difficult to estimate the impact of heredity on behavior?
environment, inability to seperate, and inconsistency
T/F genetically-based disorders are unmodifiable. explain your answer using PKU as an example
FALSE- environment/nutrtion can alter it
neurons release_______ at ______ which _______or ________te postsynaptic neuron
it usually takes _______of neuron transmitters to produce an action potential: one release usually produces a ______response.
Psychoactive durgs almost all work at the ______
nearly all abused drugs increase ____ release in ___________. these brain areas come to respond more to the addictive sbstance and less to_______
2. certain areas of the brain
3. other reinforcers
charles sherrington inferred synapses because the speed of a neural transmission through a reflex arc was ____than the known speed of transmission down the axon
each neuron is ____to neurons it send to and ______ it receives from. each neuron can have ______of synapses
EPSPs occur when the ____membrane begins to _____. EPSPs ______the likelihood that the _____neuron will have an AP
IPSPs occure wen the ___behins to _____. IPSPs _____the likelihoo that the ______neuron will have an AP
whether the postsynaptic neuron does develop an AP depends on_____
net charge and the ratio
when two PSPs develop near eac other on the postsynaptic membraine _______ summation cna reslt, prodcing more change in PSP
spontaneous firing happen when_____
resting potential and threshold are the same
EPSPs____ number of AP ____spontaneous rate
IPSPs __number of APs to _____ spontaneous rate
NTs are synthesized from _____ in_____ or _______
at end of axon
if synthesized in cell body, NTs must be ____to ______
molecues of NT are stored in _______in the ______
post synaptic terminals
NTS are relaesed by the process of _____ tat is triggered by____
NTs occur in _____ families
NT croess the _____and attaches to _____ and then separates from _____
most neurons release 2 or more NTs and have receptors for _____
alot more than they release
postsynaptic neurons can:
send signals back to postsynaptic neurons
releasing (presynaptic neuron) has ______ that signal neuron to slow down release of NT
effects of NT can be either ____ or ______
ionotrophic effects: NT ______. effect is ____, _____
most ionotrophic effects are due to _____ or ____
metabotrophic effets: NT _________. second messenger is located ______ the receiving neuron
bind to receptors
second messengers can:
protein production alteration
ionotrophic effects thus serve need for rapid transmission, such as for ______ while metabotrophic effects serve for such things as _______
quick messages (eyes)
slower messages (emotions)
peptides are often descrived as _____
peptides use a ____ process
how are peptides different from NT?
release from whole neuron
need repeated stimulation
triggers more release
diffuse widely effect nearby neurons
not seen as often
hormones are chemicals released by______ and distributed throug widely. thus while neurons mostly give discrete messages to ____, homromes send their messages widely
hormones work by _____ processes
many chemicals can serve either as ____ or as _______