Brigman Test

  1. Purpose of Menu
    • To know the prices and what is served
    • Detailed information on allergies and nutrition information
    • From owner’s standpoint, it tells you everything from equipment needed to food
  2. Who Prepares the Menu
    People who are knowledgeable, know how food is cooked, know about nutrient content, know equipment
  3. Why Restaurants Fail
    • Location
    • Some new foods
    • Lack of advertising
    • Poor service
    • Sanitation
    • Lack of knowledge in finance
    • Lack of knowledge in management
    • Lack of knowledge about food
  4. Why Restaurants Succeed
    • They enjoy eating and learning about the cuisine they have chosen
    • They want their food to succeed
    • They enjoy being with, and working with their target market
    • They start at the level at which their experience indicates they should start
    • Most start with traditional cuisine
    • They are willing to learn from everyone
  5. Menu Trends
    • Locally sourced meats and seafood
    • Locally grown produce
    • Sustainability
    • -Balance of social, economic, and environmental factors
    • Nutritionally balanced children’s meals
    • Hyper local- restaurant has their own garden or do their own butchering process
    • Sustainable seafood
    • Gluten free/food allergy conscious
    • Simplicity/back to basics
    • Farm/estate branded ingredients
  6. 3 Categories of Influence
    • Organizational
    • Customer
    • Operational and managerial
  7. Organizational Influence
    • Menu must be consistent with mission and goals
    • Possible goals of foodservice industry
    • -Schools
    • -Hospitals
    • -Restaurants
  8. Customer Influence
    • Demographics
    • Age
    • Gender
    • Health status
    • Ethnicity
    • Level of education
    • Income
    • Socioculture influence
    • Nutritional requirements
  9. Customer Influence: Socioculture
    • Marital status
    • Making small meals when you’re by yourself
    • Lifestyle
    • Ethnic background
    • Values
    • Religious practices
  10. Operational & Managerial Influence
    • Purchasing
    • -What’s available for you to purchase
    • Production
    • -Staff, equipment
    • Service
    • Budget
  11. Operational & Managerial Influence: Production
    • Equipment
    • -You can only make what the equipment allows you to make
    • Physical facilities
    • -Space
    • Personnel
    • Skilled vs unskilled
    • Availability of food
    • Style of service
  12. Selective Menu
    • Includes 2 or more choices in some or in all menu categories
    • Full selective
    • Semiselective
    • Non-selective
  13. Full Selective Menu
    All of the categories have a selection
  14. Semiselective Menu
    Have some of the categories have a choice
  15. Non-Selective Menu
    • Have no choice
    • Used for special occasions
  16. Static Menu
    Same menu used everyday
  17. Single Use Menu
    Used one time and is not usually on the menu
  18. Cycle Menu
    Serve the same menu every so often
  19. Menu Planning Variety
    • Cooking methods
    • Prices
    • Color and texture
    • Temperature
    • Configuration
    • -Everything cut in the same shape
    • Taste
    • Height
  20. Selling Price
    • Needs to cover all costs, not just food costs
    • Needs to also pay for labor, rent, utilities, upkeep
  21. No, you can cut corners
    Can cut back hours and labor
    Should foods costs be raised if not enough profit is being earned?
  22. Pricing: Psychological Aspects
    • Odd cents
    • Pricing by the ounce
    • Two tier
  23. Odd Cents
    Creates a sense of bargain
  24. Pricing by the Ounce
    Helps customer feel like they have control of the price
  25. Two Tier Pricing
    Have an upscale menu with higher prices, but it’s the same food
  26. Factor Method
    • Also known as fixed factor and markup
    • Raw food cost is multiplied by a predetermined factor that takes into account labor, supplies, and any projected profit
  27. Selling Price
    food cost x factor
  28. Pricing Factor
    100%/desired food cost%
  29. Prime Cost
    Sum of food and labor costs is multiplied by a predetermined pricing factor that accounts for food and labor through separate percentages
  30. Break Even Pricing
    Fixed cost/ selling price of meal- variable cost of meal
  31. Customer Satisfaction
    • Surveys and Comment Cards
    • Frequency Ratings and popularity indexes
    • Sales data
    • Assess actual reason for unpopularity
  32. Customer Satisfaction: Sales Data
    Cash registers keep track of what was sold
  33. Customer Satisfaction: Assessing Reason for Unpopularity
    • Prices
    • Not enough promotion
    • Unseasonal
    • Wasn’t held to temperature
  34. Populartiy Index
    • Must achieve 70% of expected number of sales for each item
    • Total servings/number of unique entrees = expected # of sales
  35. Fad
    • Short term
    • Frozen yogurt
  36. Trend
    • Long-term
    • Local grown, organic
    • Whole grain
    • Gluten free
  37. Forecasting
    • A systems approach to projecting or estimating patient/customer meals and food requirements
    • Estimating future demand using past data
  38. Reasons to Forecast
    • Means of communication with purchasing and food production
    • Purchaser needs to know how much food to order
    • Purchaser needs to know when the food needs to be available
    • Minimizes over and under production
  39. Advantages of Forecasting
    • Limited leftovers
    • No run-outs
    • More accurate purchasing of food supplies
    • Meeting food cost goals
    • Decreased inventory levels
    • A smooth functioning food production area
    • Creates a history of food consumption patterns for your facility
  40. Historical Data: Restaurants
    • How many times the menu item was ordered
    • How many times people came through
    • Beverage sales
    • How often you have to comp things
  41. Historical Data: Schools
    • Sporting events
    • # of students who get lunches
    • Total number of people enrolled in school
    • If staff purchase food
  42. Historical Data: Hospitals
    • What type of patients come in
    • What diets are served
    • Typical stay length
    • How many beds are there
    • Admission and discharge dates
  43. Participation Factor
    • Number of customers served/number of eligible customers
    • Expressed as a percentage
  44. Short Term Factors Influencing Participation
    • Weather
    • Holiday
    • Payday
    • Special events
  45. Long Term Factors Influencing Participation
    • Bad food
    • Time of day
    • New competition
    • Economy
    • Significant change in population mix
  46. Consistent Patterns Influencing Participation
    • Discharges in hospitals- Fridays
    • Planned patient admissions- Mondays
    • Days of week that are heavier for surgeries and tests
  47. Selecting a Forecasting System
    • Costs
    • Accuracy/relevancy
    • Lead time
    • –Does it give you enough time to place orders
    • Pattern of behavior
    • –Can I adjust forecasting system
    • Ease of use
    • Level of detail
    • Responsiveness
    • –Generates accurate information on a timely basis
  48. Forecast Model: Moving Average
    • Use records from the past
    • Data is averaged and used as first forecast
    • Next forecast is calculated by dropping the first number and adding the next
  49. Forecast Model: Exponential Smoothing
    • Similar to moving average
    • Weights data, more recent data are weighted more heavily than older data
    • Accounts for seasonality of data
    • Adjusts for forecast accuracy
  50. Forecast Model: Regression
    • Past data are analyzed to determine the best mathematical approach to forecasting
    • Requires assistance of a statistician
    • Very detailed and involved, but will give accurate information
  51. 3 Spheres
    • Patron
    • Inner
    • Outer
  52. Patron Sphere
    • Focal point of purchasing
    • Must decide what someone else will like
    • –Low quality vs high quality ingredients
    •   Look at demographic coming into restaurant, cost
  53. Inner Sphere
    • Most of a buyer's time is spent in here
    • Buyer must have adequate time to do the job
    • Good communication system is needed so information flows to and from management, accounting, and production
    • List of approved purveyors  and what each supplies must be formulated
    • Things that can affect patron: budget, supplier ran out
    • Purchase needs are determined, orders are placed and goods are received, stored, issued, and used
  54. Outer Sphere
    • Generally called the market
    • Need to know how it is organized and the functions required to get the right product at the right price
    • – Do they do special deliveries, how many times do they deliver a month
    • Things that can affect patron: drought, flood, early freeze, inflation
  55. Purchasing Authority
    • The amount of the organizations money that an individual manager can spend on individual purchases without having to get the permission of superiors
    • In general, as the managers attain more responsibility, the dollar amount they can spend increases
  56. Marketing Channel
    • Growing
    • Harvesting
    • Transporting
    • Processing
    • Packaging
    • Storing
    • Selling
    • Financing
    • Supplying of market information
    • –Nutrient content
    • –Ingredients
    • Each process and each transfer of ownership adds to the cost of the end product
  57. Place Value
    • Getting the goods to the right place
    • Transportation fee
  58. Time Value
    The supplier adds cost to your end product to hold the item until you need it
  59. Form Value
    Some break cases apart and sell you some
  60. Information Value
    Provide nutrition information, recipe information, marketing
  61. Source Value
    The distributor will track down an item for you if they don’t have it
  62. Primary Market
    • Basic source of supply
    • Farmers and ranchers
    • Sets prices and quality standards
  63. Secondary Market
    • Physical functional unit where products are accepted from the primary markets and distributed to local buyers
    • Wholesalers, brokers, super distributors
  64. Local Market
    • Suppliers within close proximity to the buyer
    • The supermarket or farmer’s market
  65. Market Functions
    • Exchange of commodities
    • Supply of information pertaining to all aspects of commodities
    • –May know that prices will go up/down
    • –New items that are coming on the market
    • Physical supply of commodities
    • General business rules and laws pertaining to commodities
  66. Distributor
    • Provide services above and beyond delivery at no additional cost to maintain customers
    • Help unload goods
    • May provide training to your wait-staff
    • Quality control testing
    • Can give you merchandising
    • Provide nutrient information
  67. Broker
    • Do not take title of the goods being sold
    • Receive a commission for negotiating between the buyer and supplier
    • –May need food from different distributors
  68. Manufacturer's Representative
    • Do not take title, bill or set prices and often represent small manufacturing companies
    • Companies play a flat commission on sales volume
    • May know everything about one product, but nothing else
  69. Retailer
    • Sells product to the customer
    • Sam’s club, costco
  70. Factors Affecting Food Prices
    • Adverse growing conditions
    • Disease in animals
    • Unusual consumer demand
    • Seasonal variations
    • Government policy
    • Economic trends
  71. Skills Needed for Buyers
    • Interpersonal communication
    • Customer focus
    • –Know it will have a good turn around
    • Ability to make decisions
    • Negotiation
    • Analytical ability
    • –Will this money I spent save me in the long run
    • Managing change
    • Conflict resolution
    • Problem solving
    • Influence and persuasion
    • Computer literacy
Card Set
Brigman Test