Chapter 5

  1. Catabolism
    energy-releasing process(hydrolysis reactions) exergonic
  2. Anabolism
    energy-using process(dehydration synthesis) endergonic
  3. Ligase
    enzyme - joining of molecules, using ATP
  4. Enzyme components
    • apoenzyme - protein portion
    • Cofactor - nonprotein component is also an activator. If organic called coenzyme.
    • Together is a whole active enzyme called holoenzyme
  5. Importan coezymes (derivatives of vitamins)
    • NAD
    • NADP
    • FMN
    • FAD
    • Coenzyme A
  6. Mechanism of enzymatic action
    • substrate - active site =enzyme-substrate complex
    • Substrate trasnfromed by:
    • rearrangement of existing atoms
    • hyrolysis
    • dehydration synthesis
    • Substrate relesase - becuas no longer fit into active site
  7. Denature ezymes by:
    • Temp
    • pH
    • Heavy-metal ions
    • Alcohol
    • UV radiation
  8. Factros infulencing enzyme activity
    • rate of enzyme synthesis
    • temp
    • pH
    • Substrate concentration - more subst, more activity.
  9. Competitive inhibitors
    • inhibitors fill the enzyme' active site
    • can be reversible and irreversible
  10. Noncompetitive inhibition - allosteric inhibition
    bind to another site of enzyme called allosteric site.This binding cuases active site to change shape making it non-functional.
  11. Feedback inhibition
    endproduct binds to allosteric site. Reversible. Prevents production more substances than needed.
  12. Ribozymes
    • not proteins but RNA. RNA that cuts and splices RNA
    • Function like enzymes - Have active sites that bind to substrates and are not used up in a chemical reactions.
  13. Oxidation
    • breaking off hydrogen atom -produce energy
    • protons are typically aso removed along with the H atoms
  14. Reduction reaction
    H atoms attach - capturing energy
  15. Oxidation-reduction or redox reaction
    LEO the lion goes GER
  16. Physphorylation
    convertion ADP to ATP
  17. Subsrate - level phosphorilation
    • addition of Pi(inorganic phosphate) to a compound
    • ATP is generated by the phosphorylation of ADP ( ADP+Pi +energy=ATP)
    • Pi is taken directly from inorganic compound
  18. Oxidative phosphorilation
    • occures in mytochondria in Eukaryotes
    • in plasma membrane in prokaryotes
    • in ETC - oxygen final electron acceptor
  19. Photophosphorylation
    Only in photosinthetic cells -Light cuases to vie up electrons. Energy released from ETC is used to generate ATP and NADPH.
  20. Glycolysis
    • 1 6-Carbon Glucose converted to 2 3-Carbon Pyruvic acids.
    • net gain 2 ATP
    • NADH were produced, destined for the ETC
    • Anerobic
  21. Preperation for Pyruvic acid to go into Krebs cycle
    • Pyruvic acids enter outer membrane of mitochondria.
    • 1 Carbon taken off of each pyruvic acid and converted to CO2
    • The other 2 carbons makes the acetyl group
    • Coenzyme A attaches to acetyl group = Acetyl CoA
    • Puryvic acid converted =Acetyl CoA
    • NADH
  22. Acetyl CoA enters the Krebs Cycle
    • Acetyl CoA enters innermembrane of mytochondria
    • Produces:
    • NADH destened for electron transport chain
    • 2 ATP
    • 2 CO2
  23. Electron Transport Chain
    • Flavoproteins, Cytochromes, Ubiquinoses(carrier molecules) - accept and release electrons as they are passing down the chain.
    • NADH -oxidized to NAD =release electron and H ion. H ion transfered into intermembranous space. electrons passed down electron chain in a series of redox reactinos.
    • As e passed down the chain they produce ATP -chemiosmosis
    • Last cytochrome passes electron to O2 and O2 than pickes up H+ from surrounding medium to form H2O. So final electron excepter is O2
  24. ATP formation from ETC
    • As proton (H ions) concentration increse in the intermembranous space is called a proton motive force. Than protons difuce through a transmembrane protein channel(where ATP synthase lives) into the matrix. As H ions move they allow ATP synthase to attach a phosphate to ADP to make ATP. Yelds 36-38 ATP in eukaryotes
    • 38 ATP in Prokereyots ( in plasma mebrane)
  25. Chemical reaction of aerobic respiration
  26. Anaerobic respiration
    In ETC the final electron acceptor is an inorganic substances - Nitrate Ions or sulfate ions.
  27. Fermentation
    • Only glycolysis - 2 pyruvic acids converted to another organic molecule which is the end product. NAD is regenereated so it can participate in another round of glycolysis.
    • Organic molecules is the final electron accepter.
    • Does not require oxygen. Smal amount of ATP
  28. 2 types of fermentation end products
    • 1. Lactic Acid fermentation: Pyruvate to lactic acid
    • 2. Alcohol Fermnt: Pyruvic acids converted to CO2 and acetyldehyde(alcohol) that is covernted to ethanol
Card Set
Chapter 5
quiz 4