Mesopotamia Vs. Egypt

  1. Compare Mesopotamia and Egypt.
    River valley civilizations

    Irrigation system was needed for both civilizations to control the rivers

    Agricultural civilizations due to the richness of their soil

    Marriage arranged by parents. Divorces occurred; adultery prohibited

    • Both had periods of instability and periods of power. In Egypt: kingdoms and intermediate periods
    • Mesopotamians just had civilizations being established and then overrun

    Many gods worshipped
  2. Contrast Mesopotamia and Egypt:
    M: Tigris and Euphrates= unpredictable catastrophic flooding

    E: annual, predictable flooding viewed as a blessing
  3. Contrast Mesopotamia and Egypt:
    M: mudbricks

    E: limestones
  4. Contrast Mesopotamia and Egypt:
    • M: theocracy where Gods ruled/ owned the city and temples, dominating individual and commercial life
    • Ziggurat with temple on top--> dwelling place of Gods
    • Servitude to the gods (manual labor/ subservience)
    • feared the Gods; gods affect all aspects of life; success depended on favorable relationship with the gods

    • E: no name for religion (sophisticated)
    • Osiris, Isis, Amon-Re
    • Afterlife
    • Mummification
    • Ka
    • success depended on maintaining the cosmic order by obeying pharaoh, who was seen as a god
  5. Contrast Mesopotamia and Egypt:
    M: King was an agent of the God (power from God)

    E: divine; seen as a living God
  6. Contrast Mesopotamia and Egypt:
    M: by land to trade

    E: Nile was fastest way
  7. Contrast Mesopotamia and Egypt:
    M: Vulnerable to invasion due to flat plains and no barriers

    E: Protected from all sides: desert (E/ W) cataracts (S)/ Mediterranean Sea (N)
  8. Contrast Mesopotamia and Egypt:
    M: few rights/ restricted to the house and duties/ can receive dowry

    • E: Husband was master, but wife respected and in charge of household/ education
    • Women kept their property and inheritance; some in businesses; peasants in fields and domestic duities; upper-class were priestesses; Hatshepsut--> pharaoh
  9. Contrast Mesopotamia and Egypt:
    M: lived in fear due to the Gods and searched for answers via divination

    E: lived in confidence in the stability of things
  10. Contrast Mesopotamia and Egypt:
    M: Cuneiform

    E: hieroglyphics
  11. Contrast Mesopotamia and Egypt:
    Science and Math
    • Mesopotamia:
    • - astronomy--> charted constellations and made 12 mth. lunar calendar (practical, not theoretical)
    • - Math: system of 60, interest, geometry multiplication and division

    • Egypt:
    • - Expanded greatly on math, which is evident through their pyramids
    • - Science: Expanded greatly in fields of medicine (Edwin Smith Surgical Papyrus)
  12. Contrast Mesopotamia and Egypt:
    M: dreary (Poem of a Righteous Sufferer)

    E: positive, such as Ptah-Hotep
Card Set
Mesopotamia Vs. Egypt