Survey of Management

  1. Perception
    Active mental process of selecting, organizing, & interpreting information in order to give meaning to our environment
  2. Social Perception
    Process of gathering, selecting, & interpreting information about how we view ourselves & others
  3. Factors that Affect Perception

    Characteristics in the Perceiver
    Attitudes, motives, interests, experience, expectations
  4. Factors that Affect Perception

    Characteristics of the Target
    Novelty, ambiguity, size, background, proximity, similarity
  5. Factors that Affect Perception

    Characteristics in the Situation
    Time, work setting, social setting
  6. Biases in Person Perception

    Primary Effects
    Bias that leads people to overemphasize early information
  7. Biases in Person Perception

    Contrast Effect
    Evaluation of a person's characteristics are affected by comparisons w/other people recently encountered who rank higher or lower on the same characteristic
  8. Biases in Person Perception

    Halo Effect
    Draw a general impression about a person on the basis of a single characteristic
  9. Biases in Person Perception

    People perceive others who are similar to themselves more positively than those who are dissimilar
  10. Biases in Person Perception

    Tendency to attribute one's own characteristics to other people
  11. Biases in Person Perception

    Harshness, leniency, & average tendancy
    Some percievers tend to be overly harsh in their perceptions, others overly leniant, & others view most targets as average
  12. Biases in Person Perception

    Judging others on the basis of our perception of the group to which they belong
  13. Attribution
    Assigning a cause to a behavior
  14. 3 Factors in making internal/external attributions

    Is the person's behavior unique of distinctive to a particular taks or situation - does the person behave this way in all situation
  15. 3 Factors in making internal/external attributions

    Does everyone act the same way or is the person behavior unusual
  16. 3 Factors in making internal/external attributions

    Is there some consistant pattern in the behavior over time & situations
  17. Attribution

    • Low consensus
    • High consistency
    • Low distinctiveness
  18. Attribution

    • High consensus
    • Low consistency
    • High distinctiveness
  19. Attributional Biases

    Attribution Error
    Tendency to underestimate the influence of external factors and overestimate the influence of interal factors when making judgments about behavior of others
  20. Attributional Biases

    Actor-observer Effect
    Tendency to attribute the behavior of others to internal causes and attribute own's behavior to external causes
  21. Attributional Biases

    Self-Serving Attribution
    Tendency to take credit for successes & avoid blame for failures
Card Set
Survey of Management
Management Test 1