Historians' term for the period during which iron was the primary metal for tools and weapons. The advent of iron technology began at different times in different parts of the world.
Prosperous civilization on the Aegean island of Crete in the second millennium B.C.E. The Minoans engaged in far-flung commerce around the Mediterranean and exerted powerful cultural influences on the early Greeks.
Site of a fortified palace complex in southern Greece that controlled a Late Bronze Age kingdom. In Homer's epic poems Mycenae was the base of King Agamemnon, who commanded the Greeks besieging Troy. Contemporary archaeologists call the complex Greek society of the second mellennium B.C.E. "Mycenaean."
A term used for the burial sites of elite members of Mycenaean Greek society in the mid-second mellennium B.C.E. At the bottom of deep shafts lined with stone slabs, the bodies were laid out along with gold and bronze jewelry, implements, weapons, and masks.
- A set of syllabic symbols derived from the writing system of Minoan Crete.
- Used in the Mycenaean palaces of the Late Bronze Age to write an early form of Greek.
- Used primarily for palace records, and the surviving Linear B tablets provide substantial information about the economic organization of Mycenaean society and tantalizing clues about political, social, and religious institutions.
- The forcible removal and relocation of large numbers of people or entire populations.
- The mass deportations practiced by the Assyrian and Persian Empires were meant as a terrifying warning of the consequences of rebellion.
- They also brought skilled and unskilled labor to the imperial center.
- In antiquity, the land between the eastern shore of the Mediterranean and the Jordan River, occupied by the Israelites from the early second mellennium B.C.E.
- The modern state of Israel was founded in 1948.
- A collection of sacred books containing diverse materials concerning the origins, experiences, beliefs, and practices of the Israelites.
- Most of the extant text was compiled by members of the priestly class in the fifth century B.C.E. and reflects the concerns and views of this group.
- A monumental sanctuary built in Jerusalem by King Solomon in the tenth century B.C.E. to be the religious center for the Israelite God, Yahweh.
- The Temple priesthood conducted sacrifices, received a tithe or percentage of agricultural revenues, and became economically and politically powerful.
- Destroyed by Babylonians in 587 B.C.E.
- Rebuilt on a modest scale in the late 6th century B.C.E.
- Replaced by King Herod's Second Temple in the late 1st century B.C.E.
- Belief in the existance of a single devine entity.
- Some scholars cite the devotion of the Egyptian pharoah Akhenaten to the Aten and his suppression of traditional goals as the earliest existance.
- The Israelite worship of Yahweh developed into an exclusive belief in one God, and this concept passed into Christianity and Islam.
- Greek= "dispersal"
- Used to describe the communities of a given ethnic group living outside their homeland.
- Jews, for example, spread from Israel to western Asia and Mediterranean lands in antiquity and today can be found throughout the world.
- Semitic-speaking Canaanites living on the coast of modern Lebanon and Syria in the first millennium B.C.E.
- From major cities (such as Tyre and Sidon), Phoenician merchants and sailors explored the Mediterranean, engaged in widespread commerce, and founded Carthage and other colonies in the western Mediterranean.
- Founded by Phoenicians.
- Major commercial center and naval power in the western Mediterranean.
- Defeated by Rome in 3rd century B.C.E.
- Babylon again became a major political and cultural center in the seventh and sixth centuries B.C.E.
- After participating in the destruction of Assyrian power, the monarchs Nabopolassar and Nebuchadnezzar took over the southern portion of the Assyrian domains.
- By destroying the First Temple in Jerusalem and deporting part of the population, they initiated the diaspora of the Jews.
- Founder of Achaemenid Persian Empire.
- Conquered Media, Lydia, and Babylon.
- Revered in the traditions of both Iran and the subject peoples, he employed the Persians and Medes in his administration and respected the institutions and beliefs of subject peoples.
- 3rd ruler of Persian Empire.
- Crushed the widespread initial resistance to his rule; gave all major government posts to Persians rather than Medes.
- Established system of provinces and tribute.
- Began construction of Persepolis.
- Expanded Persian control in the east and west.
- Governor of a province in the Achaemenid Persian Empire, often a relative of the king.
- Responsible for protection of the provice and for forwarding tribute to the central administration.
- Satraps in outlying provinces enjoyed considerable autonomy.
- Complex of palaces, reception halls, and treasury buildings erected by Persian kings Darius and Xerxes.
- New Year's festival celebrated here, along with coronations, weddings, and funerals of the Persian kings, who were buried in nearby cliff-tombs.
- A religion originating in ancient Iran with the prophet Zoroaster.
- Single diety (Ahuramazda) who had a struggle with demonic forces before prevailing and restoring a pristine world.
- Demands that humans choose sides in the struggle between good and evil.
- Good conduct = good afterlife. Bad conduct = punishment.
- May have influenced Judaism, Christianity, etc.
Greek word for "city-state."
- Heavily armored Greek infantry.
- Archaic and Classical periods.
- Army men were middle and upper class.
- For centuries, hoplites were superior to all other military forces.
- Someone who seized and held power in violation of normal procedures/traditions.
- Appeared in many Greek city-states.
- Contributed to evolution of democracy.
System of government in which all "citizens" have equal political rights and legal rights, priveleges, and protections, as in the Greek city-state of Athens.
Gift given to diety with aim of creating a relationship, gaining favor, obligating diety to provde benefit to sacrificer.
- Heir to the technique of historia- "investigation"- developed by Greeks in late Archaic period.
- Came from Greek community in Anatolia- traveled extensively, collecting information.
- Traced antedecents of and chronicled the Persian Wars between Greek city-states and Persian Empire, thus originating the western tradition of historical writing.
- Aristocratic leader who guided the Athenian state through transformation to full participatory democracy for all male citizens.
- Supervised construction of Acropolis.
- Pursued a policy of imperial expansion that led to the Peloponnesian War.
- Conflicts between Greek city-states and Persian Empire.
- Ranges from Ionic Revolt through Darius's punitive expedition that failed at Marathon and the defeat of Xerxes' massive invasion of Greece by Spartan-led Hellenic League.
- First major setback for Persian arms launched the Greeks into their period of greatest cultural productivity.
- Greek and Phoenician warship.
- Sleek and light, powered by 170 oars, arranged in 3 vertical tiers.
- Manned by skilled sailors.
- Capable of short bursts of speed and complex maneuvers.
- Athenian philosopher.
- Shifted emphasis of philosophical investigation from questions of natural science to ethics and human behavior.
- Attracted young disciples from elite familes.
- Made enemies by revealing follies of others.
- Put on trial and execution by Athenian state (death by Hemlock).
- Costly conflict between the Athenian and Spartan alliance systems that convulsed most of the Greek world.
- Largely a consequence of Athanian imperialism.
- Possession of a naval empire allowed Athens to fight a war of attrition.
- Sparta prevailed because of Athenian errors and Persian financial support.
- King of Macedonia in northern Greece.
- Conquered Persian Empire. Reached Indus Valley
- Founded many Greek-style cities.
- Spread Greek cultures across Middle East.
- Era in which Greek culture spreads across western Asia and northeastern Africa.
- After conquests of Alexander the Great.
- Ended with the fall of last major Hellenistic kingdom to Rome.
- Greek cultural influence persisted until the spread of Islam.
- Macedonian dynasty, descended from one of Alexander the Great's officers, that ruled Egyot for 3 centuries.
- Took over the system created by the Egyptian pharoahs to extract the wealth of the land, rewarding Greeks and Hellenized non-Greeks serving in the military and administration.
- City on the Mediterranean coast of Egypt.
- Founded by Alexander.
- Capital of the Hellenistic kingdom of Ptolemies.
- Contained famous library and museum.
- Merchants engage in trade with areas bordering the Mediterranean and Indian Ocean.