What's the definition of a hero, according to Joseph Campbell?
- A hero is someone who gives his or her life to someone/something else
Facts about Joseph Campbell
- wrote, "The power of Myth"
- - Inspired the movie, Star Wars
- - famous for mythology, and later referred to a hero's journey as a "Monomyth"
How many stages, according to Joseph Campbell, are there in a hero's journey? What are the first three stages he mentions?
Departure: call to adventure > refusal to call > supernatural aid > Risk
Initiation: road of trials > meeting with tempress > atonement with father > ultimate boom (climax)
Return: refusal of return > majic flight > crossing of the return threshold > master of 2 worlds > freedom to live
According to Campbell's definition of a hero, is Gilgamesh a hero?
yes. He goes through a spiritual deed - he learns something about himself, and the world around him. He learns, after completing the quest to find immortality, that he should appreciate his dive and mortal attributes, and life in general. After this realization, he is a better king (of Uruk)
Where was the story, "Gilgamesh" first found?
Mesopotamia (near the euphrates and tigris rivers)
written by Akkadians in cuneiform
controversy with Gilgamesh
- flood accounts, possible relation to Genesis, authorship is unknown in both Gilgamesh and Genesis
- narrative differences
- A story that helps explain the world around you. Usually is not true.
means of proof or validity of something
the study of religious truths
the study of religious myths
Character of Gilgamesh
- King of Uruk
- strong and brave
- fears death and mortality
- part god and part human
- goes to the eneds of the earth in search of immortality
- very self-centered
- in the end, Gilgamesh reconcies with his divine mortality attributes
Character of Enkidu:
- hairy chested/brawney/ruddy
- raised by animals
- made by the gods in order to be Gilgamesh's counterpart
love motivates Gilgamesh to change, and later, his reltionship changed/became very close to eachother
Female Qualities theme:
sex, fertility, domesticity, and nurturing are all feminine qualities given to women in order to persuade men and others around them in order to follow whatever their masters have put in front of them
theme: inevibility of death
- greatest lesson Gilgamesh learns along his way
- the only thing that lasts is fame
- the lesson that Gilgamesh brings back from his quest, in order to find secrets about eternal life, is not death, but rather life.
theme: the gods are dangerous
dont guarantee safety for their people/believers ( causes lots of controversy because the Christian God explained in the Bible is not dangerous
similarities between the gods in Gilgamesh and the God in the Bible (specifically in the book of Genesis):
the gods in Gilgamesh and the gods in Genesis (Bible) bring about much destruction in order to get their people's attentions
the film, "Crimes and Misdemeanors"
written by Woody Allen
The first story involves Judah, a wealthy ophthalmologist and family man, who has had a several-year affair with Dolores. Dolores threatens to go public regarding the affair and Judah’s shady financial dealings unless Judah leaves his wife. Judah calls on his mobster brother to kill Dolores, which he does. The second storyline involves Cliff, a nerdy and unsuccessful documentary filmmaker, who is in an unhappy marriage. While working on a documentary about a TV personality named Lester, Cliff falls in love with Halley, a network producer. Halley rebuffs Cliff because he is married. When Cliff finally gets divorced, Halley has become engaged to Lester
Throughout both storylines discussions arise about God’s role in establishing ethical values, and whether the world would be valueless if God didn’t exist. Judah and Cliff meet up at the end of the film, and Judah presents an anonymous version of the murder – as though it might be a plot for a movie. It becomes clear that Judah got away with the murder, and suffered no long-term guilt. The film was
What spurred Joseph's brothers to plan against him?
Whom did Joseph ask his brothers for after he accusmed them of being spies?
Who had their dreams interpreted by Joseph?
Pharoah, the baker, and the cupbearer
"Instruction" in Hebrew language
" 5 scrolls" /"books", in the Greek language
what are the first five books of the Bible?
- 1. Genesis
- 2. Exodus
- 3. Leviticus
- 4. Numbers
- 5. Deuteronomy
Ancient Hebrews (Facts)
- -beginnings of a pastoral tribe
- -didnt control any territory of economic or military importance
- -struggled for freedom from Babylonaians, Greeks, and Romans
- - NOT an imperial people
- - no paintings, scultpures, or drama left behind
- - 22 letters based on sound, all consonants
- - derived from phoenecian alphabet
- originally written in Hebrew (not English)
- authorship > controversey over the torah
2 theories for "who wrote it?" ( the Bible)
- 1. moses > 2nd hand account, with some inconsistencies with even this theory
- 2. Documentary Hypothesis (most pop. among theorists) > JEPD sources
- -- J > YHWY (yahweh)
- -- E > Elohim (general name for God) oldest name for God -- P > Priestly ( all about laws/rituals)
- -- D > Deuteronomy** There are pieces of the Bible put together by many different people, at different times
Arguments for the Book of Genesis:
- man written?
- legitimate source/material?
- many names for one God?
- how did the world begin, evolution or creation?
Main point from reading Genesis
Are there other wats of telling truth other than algebraic formulas and history? Myth as a metaphor for truth?
6 days of Creation
- 1. day/nighr
- 2. waters above, sky below
- 3. water and land
- 4. sun, moon, and stars
- 5. Birds, fish, and sea creatures
- 6. land animals and humans (Adam and Eve first Humans ever created)
facts about the "creation story"
- - highly orderly (our God is a God of order!)
- - highly "stylized", and "strategic" in form/plan
What did God create Adam from?
soil, or, "adema"
3 Divine Purposes in life
- 1. vocation - work in garden/maintenance of land
- 2. permission - alllowed to eat ANYTHING in the garden, EXCEPT from the tree of "good and evil"
- 3. prohibition - obedience to God's laws laid down for us after the fall
- Why did God put these limitations on Adam and Eve?- he made them to be "as innocent as children"
- and also, to trust him with their life's purpose/path to follow
- Adam and Eve reject all 3 of these divine purposes laid out by God:
- 1. Vocation is neglected
- 2. Permission is perverted/ruined
- 3. Prohibition (obedience) is neglected
Conflict/Contradiction with Adam needing a woman
God mentions, BEFORE the fall, that adam is supplied with everything needed to survive , and then he later says, AFTER the fall, "adam, you are not fulfilled completely until you have a woman to be with for companionship"
who was the first murderer?
Cain. He killed his brother, Abel. This sinful act marked the beginning of sin being considered, "personified"
What does the name, Cain, mean?
to get, to create
What does the name, Abel, mean?
Main point of first few chapters of Genesis:
Life is not fair, and not always going to be a "garden party"
who's to blame for the corruption, or, "the fall"?
what is dirt, or soil (adema), a symbol for?
Why did God send a flood to the earth, to destroy humankind? (Flood Motifs)
- God needed to do something ("take action") because he realized man will be evil at heart from now forward
- problem:creation refused to be God's creation
- Punishment: death (could God bring the world to an end? can God change?)
- Resolution: covenant, because God is grieved with their sin, and wants to give them another chance (blesses us) -- rebellion doesnt sway God's plan for creation, his plan will happen in the end
What is the covenant?
- the resolution God comes up with, that offers humankind a second chance (grace/freedom/mercy)
- this covenant he made was an "Intensified committment to his will"
- Also, covenants (in general), are contracts between God and human beings
- something that makes God seem "lowly"/"original"
- God submitting himself to a rule of law (for our good, and his good)
- Hebrews were given a symbol/sign of the covenant
What is a Protagonist?
the main character of a story, often the "hero"
What is an Antagonist?
a person of force, in opposition to the protagonist
What is a Dynamic character?
a character that undergoes an important change in the story
what is a Static character?
a character that doesnt change throughout the story
What is a Round character?
- a character with many different personality traits >> these traits reinforce the degree of believability
what is a Flat character?
a character with one trait or characteristic that helps serve the background or support other characters
What is a Foil character?
- a character used to enhance another character through contrast (differences)
what is a Stock character?
a character easily recognized by audience because of the stereotypical/cultural themes
What is the story of Joseph about on the literary level?
- separation of a child and parent
- - story of a reunion and reconciliation
What is the story of Joseph about on the symbolic level?
- all of the literary themes could be a metaphor for the mission of God
Story of Judah
- got married and had 3 kids
- first born kid marries Tamar but is later killed
- 2nd born kid refuses to provide an heir for his brothers
- 3rd son was promised to Tamar, but not given
- years later, Judah mistakes Tamar as a prostitute, and gives her his goat, scal/chord, and his staff due to her request
- she then becomes pregnant with Judah and is accused of prostitution
Discuss the role/examples of "mythical tragic heroes":
- - common pattern of life for all tragic heroes is happiness to misery
- - all tragic heroes goal is to accomplish a significant event, that will then proclaim their name as "great and mighty"
- - they all have disastrous endings