Physiology Exam 1

  1. 4 main functions of the Nervous System?
    • Detect information
    • Recognize significance
    • Decide on response
    • Execute action
  2. Define afferent pathways
    Transmit sensory information from PNS to CNS (sensory neurons)
  3. Define efferent pathways
    Neurons relay information from CNS to effector organs (motor pathway)
  4. Describe 2 types of efferent pathways
    • Autonomic Nervous System- controls internal organs:
    • sympathetic system: fight or flight
    • parasympathetic system: rest and digest
    • Somatic Motor Division-Controls skeletal muscle
  5. Define reflex pathways
    sensory--> CNS--> motor
  6. Olfactory Nerve
  7. Optic Nerve
  8. Occulomotor Nerve
    motor-eye movement
  9. Trochlear Nerve
    motor-eye movement
  10. Trigeminal Nerve
    • Both:
    • sensory-face sensation
    • motor-chewing
  11. Abducens Nerve
    motor-eye movement
  12. Facial Nerve
    • Both-
    • sensory-anterior taste
    • motor-facial expression
  13. Vestibulocochlear Nerve (auditory)
    sensory-Hearing, Balance
  14. Glossopharyngeal Nerve
    • Both-
    • sensory-posterior taste
    • motor-pharynx, salivary
  15. Vagus Nerve
    Both- larynx, lungs, heart, gastrointestinal (s) (m)
  16. Accessory Spinal Nerve
    motor-movement of neck, viscera, swallowing
  17. Hypoglossal Nerve
    motor-tongue movement
  18. 4 main regions of spinal cord
    • cervical (8)
    • thoracic (12)
    • lumbar (5)
    • sacral (5)
    • coccyx (1)
  19. Functional significance of the dorsal part of spinal cord
    Posterior, Afferent, sensory-->CNS
  20. Functional significance of the ventral part of spinal cord
    Anterior, Efferent, motor-->PNS/effector organs
  21. Define ascending tracts
    transmit info from spinal cord to brain (rise)
  22. Define descending tracts
    transmit info from brain to spinal cord
  23. Describe Dura mater
    • "Hard, durable mother"
    • Outer most layer of meninges, tough fibrous tissue touches bone
  24. Describe Arachnoid mater
    • "spider mother"
    • middle layer of meninges, weblike structure touches dura mater, no space between
    • -subarachnoid mater-space between arachnoid and pia filled w/CSF
  25. Describe Pia mater
    • "tender, kind mother"
    • inner most layer of meninges, adjacent to nerve tissue adheres to brain/spinal cord
  26. The Ventricular System
    • system of 4 ventricles
    • Holds CSF (proteins and glucose) providing nourishment and protection
  27. Describe Blood Brain Barrier
    • made of modified capillaries made of endothelial cells that have pores between them. the capillaries that line the brain are also endothelial cells but have tight junctions to reduce space and covered by feet of astrocytes.
    • Helps seperate blood circulating in capillaries (which may be carrying toxins) from mixing w the extracellular fliud of the brain.
  28. List 6 major divisions of brain
    • Forebrain:
    • -cerebrum
    • -diencephalon


    • Brain stem:
    • -midbrain
    • -pons
    • -medulla oblongata
  29. List components of midbrain and its function
    • part of brainstem, conduction pathway between higher and lower brain centers
    • components-
    • tectum: (roof) responsible for auditory and visual reflexes
    • tegumentum:(covering) involved in many unconscious homeostatic and reflexive pathways.
  30. List functions of pon
    • relay info from cerebrum to cerebellum.
    • co-operates with medualla oblongata (respiratory rate)
  31. List components and function of Medulla Oblongata
    • components:
    • grey matter (visceral muclei) controlling heart rate, blood vessel diameter, resp. rate, coughing, vomiting (autonomic involuntary functions)

    white matter contains ascending somatosensory tracts and descending corticospinal tracts (tracts cross midline @ medula or spinal cord)
  32. Function of cerebellum
    • "mini brain"
    • motor coordination and balance processes info from cerebral motor cortex , proprioceptors, visual and equilibrium pathways
  33. List components and functions of diencephalon
    • contains
    • Thalamus-relay station, memory processing
    • Hypothalamus-Homeostasis center
  34. The Limbic system
    • "basic instinct"
    • mediates emotional response
    • connects to frontal, temporal lobe, thalamus and hypothalamus
    • contains:
    • amygdala-anger, fear and aggression
    • cingulate gyrus-positive and negative emotional response
    • hippocampus-learning and memory
    • insular cortex-relates visceral/autonomic sensations of emotion to rest of brain
    • ex: bear--->HR ,BP increase --->fear
  35. amygdala
    anger, fear and agression
  36. cingulate gyrus
    involved in positive and negative emotional response
  37. hippocampus
    learning and memory
  38. insular cortex
    • relates visceral/autonomic sensations of emotion to rest of brain
    • EX: Bear-->increase HR BP-->Fear
  39. Function of Corpus collosum
    Band of tissue connecting two halves of cerebral hemisphere of the cerebrum
  40. Describe 6 layers of grey matter comprising cerebral cortex
    • Layer 1: almost no cell bodies
    • Layer 2: inhibitory interneurons
    • Layer 3: Excitatory interneurons
    • Layer 4: Sensory signals project here
    • Layer 5,6: pyrimidal cells (projection neurons) major output cells of the cortex
    • non-pyrimidal cells involved in local processing
  41. List 4 cerebral cortices
    • Temporal-auditory perception(primary auditory cortex)
    • Frontal-voluntary movement (primary motor cortex)
    • Parietal-sensory
    • Occipital-visual processing center(visual cortex)
  42. Define sensory homunculus
    "little man" maps which area of somatosensory cortex are devoted to particular regions of body
  43. Describe Graschwind model of language
    • A theory of language processing
    • Wernickes area
    • primary visual cortex
    • angular gyrus
    • arcuate fasciculus
    • primary cortex
    • Brocas area
    • primary auditory cortex
  44. Wenickes area (secondary auditory complex)
    speech comprehension
  45. Brocas area
    • language expression
    • speaking and writing words
  46. Primary visual cortex
    process vision
  47. angular gyrus
    recognition of written words
  48. arcuate fasciculus
    network of neurons connecting wernickes to brocas area
  49. primary motor cortex
    control and excecution of voluntary movements
  50. primary auditory cortex
    process sound
  51. If damage to wernickes
    • Fluent nonsensical jargon (flows smoothly and quick)
    • doesnt make sense but they are not aware of it
    • possible neogism-making up new words
  52. If damage to brocas
    • Difficulty speaking but they comprehend and understand what is being told to them.
    • difficulty articulating syntax-grammatical rules/complete sentences
  53. Explain contralateral control
    • one side of the brain controls other side of body
    • in somatic sensory pathways:
    • touch
    • temperature
    • proprioception
    • pain
    • 3 neuron series
    • 1st order neurons triggered by receptor activation
    • 2nd order neurons cross midline
    • 3rd order neurons originate in thalamus(direct signal to appro. place)
  54. General functions of right hemisphere and language capabilities
    • nonverbal and visual spatial
    • language capabilities:
    • understand meaning of a word
    • comprehend vocab at 13 yr old level
    • comprehend sentence structure at 5 yr old level
    • give context to language
    • govern emotional expression of language
    • important visual spatial info
  55. General functions of left hemisphere
    language and analytical function
  56. split brain patient
    • Left hemisphere-language & analytical function
    • Right hemisphere-nonverbal & visual spatial
    • ask 1. what was patient asked to do?
    • 2. which hemisphere activated?
    • 3. think of contralateral control?
Card Set
Physiology Exam 1
CNS and Afferent Pathways