the total amount of blood in circulation (sum of plasma and RBC volume)
total blood volume
functional inability of the blood to supply tissue with adequate oxygen
excess blood volume--> increase total blood volume
abnormally decreased total blood volume-more common then hyper.
mean corpuscular volume
mean corpuscular Hgb
Tells us how many Hgb/cell on average
corpuscular HgB concentraton
Measure of weight to volume, is a relative concept.
does the cell count contain the amount of HgB for its volume.
A quantitative increase in circulationg RBC’s. Synonym= polycythemia vera:
increase in circulating RBS’s with an elevated Hct. Men > 52% and women> 47%.
red cell mass increase and is associated with a normal total volume.
decrease in total blood volume, normal red cell volume, decreased plasma volume.
small and pale
large and normal color
describe anemia associated with defective DNA synthesis
and abnormal red cell maturation in BM.
failure of teh stomach to secret intrinsic factors
fish tapeworm competes very efficiently for B12.
result of increase or decreased synthesis of alpha or beta chains
intracorpuscular defect from abnormal O2 dissociation
decrease in formation of beta chains:
decreased formation of HbA.
decrease in formation of alpha chains
decreased HbA, HbA2 & gower II.
beta thalassemia major.
Symptoms= severe hypochromic
anemia, marked decrease in MCV & MCH, slight decrease in MCHC.
Also see anisocytosis and
poikilocytosis, microcytes, target cells, basophilic stippling (pepper on egg
white), polychromasia and nucleated rbcs.
process by which neutrophils leave the blood for tissues and body cavities via endothelial cell junctions.
large bluish bodies
Are the most important leukocytes
in cellular defense against infection; are the most active, most effective at
killing bacteria via phagocytosis.
rigid neutrophils cannot move through endothelial cell pores and have abnormally
large azurophilic granules.
leukocytes don’t respond to inflammatory signals.
lazy leukocyte syndrome
process of cell locomotion that shares many metabolic requirements with
can be congenital or acquired, with
this deficiency, neutrophils and monocytes lack myeloperxidase in primary
granules (eosinophils are normal)
In neutrophils—see normal
engulfment, problem seems to an inability to mount a post phagocytic oxidative
Chronic Granulomatous disease
Patients have recurrent pyogenic
infections, presence of giant massive lysosomes in most granulocytes. Have
abnormalities of plts à bleeding problems. See impaired chemotaxis, delayed
killing of ingested bacteria b/c of the abnormal distribution and delivery of
syndrome characterized by immunologic alteration, with recurrent
pyogenic infections and eczema
a circulating phagocyte, only play a major role in certain
infections. These cells are motile, phagocytic, have a high concentration of
lipase, effective against M. Tuberculosis (lipid envelope).
responsible for synthesis of interferon, complement, pyrogenes &
1-2 micron light blue, seen in periphery of cytoplasm,
composed of aggregated rough ER.
Severe infection, fine to coarse,
basophilic granulation in neutrophils. Hypersegmentsed neutrophiles, 5-6 or
An increase in all forms of WBCs, relatively unusual, usually this is due to hemoconcentration.
Can be due to infestation with parasites, particularly those that invade tissue.
Can also see with allergic reactions/conditions
And with scarlet fever, chronic myelogenous leukemia, hodgkin’s disease, some skin disease.
Rarely seen, can be seen in association with polycythemia vera and chronic myelogenous leukemia.
Chronic TB, brucellosis, typhus and in recovery phase of infections that cause lymphocytosis
a rare congenital condition, is an acute dz in which the white cell count is markedly reduced and neutropenia becomes pronounced—find defective maturation and proliferation of neutrophilic precurosors—symptoms: fever, chills, malaise, ulceration of oral nasal pharynx and throat.
Include a wide range of disorders from mild anemias to malignant disorders rapidly terminating in acute leukemia. It is now known that all MDS involve clonal abnormalities of hematopoietic pluripotential stem cells.
= a group of primary hematologic disorders associated with abnormal division, maturation, and production of erythrocytes, granulocytes, monocytes, and plts; also reffered to as preleukemic myelodysplastic syndrome.