1. applied sociology
     the use of sociology to solve problems—from the micro level of family relationships to the macro level of crime and pollution
  2. bourgeoisie
    Karl Marx’s term for capitalists, those who own the means to produce wealth
  3. class conflict: 
     Marx’s term for the struggle between the proletariat (workers) and the bourgeoisie (capitalists)
  4. conflict theory
     a theoretical framework in which society is viewed as composed of groups competing for scarce resources
  5. functionalism
     a theoretical framework in which society is viewed as composed of various parts, each with a function that, when fulfilled, contributes to society’s equilibrium; also known as structural functionalism
  6. generalization
     a statement that goes beyond the individual case and is applied to a broader group or situation
  7. macro-level analysis
     an examination of large-scale patterns of society
  8.  micro-level analysis
     an examination of small-scale patterns of society
  9. natural science
     the intellectual and academic disciplines designed to comprehend, explain, and predict events in our natural environment
  10. objectivity
     total neutrality
  11. positivism
    the application of the scientific approach to the social world
  12. proletariat
     Marx’s term for the exploited class, the mass of workers who do not own the means of production
  13. public sociology
     sociology being used for the public good; especially the sociologicalperspective (of how things are related to one another) guiding politicians and policy makers
  14. pure or basic sociology
     sociological research whose only purpose is to make discoveries about life in human groups, not to make changes in those groups
  15. replication
     repeating a study in order to check its findings
  16. science
     the application of systematic methods to obtain knowledge and the knowledge obtained by those methods
  17. scientific method
     the use of objective, systematic observations to test theories 
  18. social facts
     Durkheim’s term for a group’s patterns of behavior
  19. social integration
     the degree to which people feel a part of social groups
  20. social location
     the group memberships that people have because of their location in history and society
  21. social sciences
     the intellectual and academic disciplines designed to understand the social world objectively by means of controlled and repeated observations
  22. society
     a term used by sociologists to refer to a group of people who share a culture and a territory
  23. sociological perspective
     understanding human behavior by placing it within its broader social context
  24. sociology
     the scientific study of society and human behavior
  25. symbolic interactionism
     a theoretical perspective in which society is viewed as composed of symbols that people use to establish meaning, develop their views of the world, and communicate with one another
  26. theory
     a general statement about how some parts of the world fit together and how they work; an explanation of how two or more facts are related to one another
  27. value free
     the view that a sociologist’s personal values should not influence social research
  28. values
     ideas about what is good or worthwhile in life; attitudes about the way the world ought to be
  29. Verstehen
    a German word used by Weber that is, perhaps, best understood as “to have insight into someone’s situation”
  30. Jane Addams
    was the founder of Hull-House—a settlement house in the immigrant community of Chicago. She invited sociologists from the nearby University of Chicago to visit. In 1931 she was a winner of the Nobel Peace Prize.
  31. W. E. B. Du Bois
     was the first African American to earn a doctorate at Harvard University. For most of his career, he taught sociology at Atlanta University. He was concerned about social injustice, wrote about race relations, and was one of the founders of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP).
  32. Emile Durkheim
     was responsible for getting sociology recognized as a separate discipline. He was interested in studying how individual behavior is shaped by social forces and in finding remedies for social ills. He stressed that sociologists should use social facts—patterns of behavior that reflect some underlying condition of society. ,
  33. Karl Marx
     believed that social development grew out of conflict between social classes; under capitalism, this conflict was between the bourgeoisie—those who own the means to produce wealth—and the proletariat—the mass of workers. His work is associated with the conflict perspective.
  34. C. Wright Mills
     suggested that external influences (a person’s experiences) become part of his or her thinking and motivations and explain social behavior. As the emphasis in sociology shifted from social reform to social theory, Mills urged sociologists to get back to their roots. He saw the emergence of the power elite composed of top leaders of business, politics, and the military as an imminent threat to freedom
  35. Talcott Parsons
     work dominated sociology in the 1940s and 1950s. He developed abstract models of how the parts of society harmoniously work together
  36. Georg Simmel
     overstimulation and the urban environment.
  37. Herbert Spence
     Another early sociologist, Spencer believed that societies evolve from barbarian to civilized forms. He was the first to use the expression “the survival of the fittest” to reflect his belief that social evolution depended on the survival of the mostcapable and intelligent and the extinction of the less capable. His views became known as social Darwinism.
  38. F Toennies
     Gemeinschaft and Gesellschaft
  39. Max Weber
     Weber’s most important contribution to sociology was his study of the relationship between the emergence of the Protestant belief system and the rise of 3capitalism. He believed that sociologists should not allow their personal values to affect their social research; objectivity should become the hallmark of sociology. He argued that sociologists should use Verstehen—those subjective meanings that people give to their behavior.
  40. case study
     an analysis of a single event, situation, or individual
  41. closed-ended questions
     questions that are followed by a list of possible answers to be selected by the respondent
  42. control group
     the subjects in an experiment who are not exposed to the independent variable
  43. dependent variable
     a factor in an experiment that is changed by an independent variable
  44. documents
     in its narrow sense, written sources that provide data; in its extended sense, archival material of any sort, including photographs, movies, CDs, DVDs, and so on
  45. experiment
     the use of control and experimental groups, and dependent and independent variables to test causation
  46. generalizability
     the extent to which the findings from one group (or sample) can be generalized or applied to other groups (or populations)
  47. hypothesis
     a statement of how variables are expected to be related to one another, often according to predictions from a theory
  48. independent variable
     a factor that causes a change in another variable, called the dependent variable
  49. interview
     direct questioning of respondents
  50. interviewer bias
     effects that interviewers have on respondents that lead to biased answers
  51. answers open-ended questions
     questions that respondents answer in their own words
  52. operational definition
     the way in which a researcher measures a variable
  53. participant observation (or fieldwork)
     research in which the researcher participates in a research setting while observing what is happening in that setting
  54. population
     the target group to be studied 
  55. qualitative research method
     research in which the emphasis is placed on observing, describing and interpreting people’s behavior
  56. quantitative research method
     research in which the emphasis is placed on precisemeasurement, the use of statistics and numbers
  57. questionnaire
     a list of questions to be asked of respondents
  58. random sample
     a sample in which everyone in the target population has the same chance of being included in the study
  59. rapport
    a feeling of trust between researchers and the people they are studying
  60. reliability
     the extent to which research produces consistent or dependable results
  61. replication
     the repetition of a study in order to test its findings 
  62. research method (or research design)
     one of the procedures that sociologists use to collect data: surveys, participant observation, case studies, secondary analysis, documents, experiments, and unobtrusive measures
  63. respondents
     the people who respond to a survey, either in interviews or by selfadministered questionnaires
  64. sample
     the individuals intended to represent the population to be studied 
  65. secondary analysis
     the analysis of data that have been collected by other researchers
  66. self-administered questionnaires
    questionnaires that respondents fill out
  67. stratified random sample
     a sample from select subgroups of the target population in which everyone in these subgroups has an equal chance of being included in the research
  68. structured interviews
     interviews that use closed-ended questions
  69. survey
    the collection of data by having people answer a series of questions
  70. unobtrusive measures
     the various ways of observing people so they do not know they are being studied
  71. unstructured interviews
     interviews that use open-ended questions 
  72. validity
     the extent to which an operational definition measures what it was intended to measure
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