The flashcards below were created by user kamrunsreno on FreezingBlue Flashcards.

  1. Major Components of a Map
    • Scale bar
    • legend
    • North Arrow
    • Title
    • Discription
    • Source
    • Locator Map
    • Border
    • Credit
  2. Map Geometry 
    Symbols occupy more space than they generally take up based on the scale

    Linear widths, sometimes rivers are lines on a map other times they are polygons (question of scale and what is the real width of the river)

    Same is true for roads 
  3. Elementary Geometric Operations (Linear Features) 
    Image Upload 1
  4. Elementary Geometric Operations
    (Point Features) 
    Image Upload 2
  5. Elementary Geometrick Operations
    (Area Features)
    Image Upload 3
  6. Map Symbology (NPS)
    Image Upload 4
  7. Symbol (USGS)
    Image Upload 5
  8. Meridian
    A plane that passes through the center of the Earth

    For reference in projection terms a meridian passes through the poles

    Since all are equal a prime meridian had to be selected

    Longitude lines of the Earth’s graticule 
  9. Parallel
    Lines placed at right angles to the meridians

    The equator is a parallel and is the main reference point for projections

    Latitude lines of the Earth’s graticule 
  10. Coordinate System
    Global systems

    – Most commonly used latitude and longitude

    • • Reno, NV
    • – Latitude 39° 30’ 30” North
    • – Longitude -119° 48’ 30” West

    • Degrees, Minutes, Seconds (dms)

    • • Decimal Degrees (dd)
    • – Latitude 39.508333333
    • – Longitude -119.80833333

    • • Conversion to decimal degrees
    • – decimal deg. = degrees + (minutes / 60) + (seconds / 3600) 
  11. Spheroid
    A three-dimensional shape obtained by rotating an ellipse about its minor axis, with dimensions that either approximate the earth as a whole, or with a part that approximates the corresponding portion of the geoid.

    The shape and size of a coordinate system is defined by the spheroid

    Smaller scale systems can assume sphere shape for earth (more on that later) 

    Most created with a specific region in mind
  12. Geoid
    Earth not a true ellipse or sphere, but has an irregular shape. This shape is called a geoid.

    Think in terms of the highest mountain peak and the lowest ocean valley
  13. Conical Map Projections
    • Albers equal-area
    • Conical can also be good for distances
    • Scale and shape distorted 
    • Image Upload 6
  14. Cylindrical 
    • Distortion different close to poles    
    • Meridians are now the important points
    • UTM zones run north-south with a central meridian 
  15. Azimuthal
    • Projections onto a plane
    • Good for direction
    • Map distances can be computed by a function
    • Image Upload 7
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